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An imbalance between T helper cell (Th)1 and Th2-like cytokines has been described in several chronic infectious diseases. We therefore analyzed the intrahepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Th1-like (interleukin [IL]-2, interferon [IFN]-gamma) and Th2-like (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines in chronic hepatitis C patients (n = 17) and controls (n = 6) and(More)
During the study period, 63 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis were referred to our unit for liver transplantation. All cases referred and transplanted were retrospectively examined. Eighty-six per cent of referred patients were male, 35% consumed alcohol in the harmful/hazardous range, 13% were infected with hepatitis B and 7% had(More)
The balance between a direct cytopathic effect by hepatitis C virus (HCV) and immune-mediated injury remains unclear. This report aims to test the following hypotheses: (1) that intrahepatic HCV load would correlate with the degree of liver injury; (2) that interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) would decrease intrahepatic HCV-RNA levels. Liver tissues (n = 56) were(More)
Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the method of choice for rapid and reproducible measurements of cytokine or growth factor expression in small samples. Fluorescence detection methods for monitoring real-time PCR include fluorogenic probes labelled with reporter and quencher dyes, such as Taqman probes or(More)
BACKGROUND Upregulation of Th1 associated intrahepatic cytokines in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should lead to a significant non-specific cellular immune response, a prerequisite for viral clearance. However, to date, the role of this non-specific response in HCV has been understudied. AIMS To analyse the intrahepatic macrophage activity in(More)
The hallmarks of chronic liver diseases are chronic inflammation, cellular damage, regeneration and fibrosis. An appreciation of intrahepatic molecular expression patterns in normal and diseased liver provides clues for understanding pathogenic pathways whilst studies of the structure and function of molecules implicated in liver disease provide insights(More)
The pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated liver injury involves many genes from multiple pathogenic pathways. cDNA array analysis, which examines the expression of many genes simultaneously, was used to achieve new insights into HCV liver injury. Membrane-based cDNA arrays of 874 genes compared HCV-associated cirrhosis with autoimmune(More)
Pathogenic molecular pathways in cirrhotic liver diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are poorly characterized. Differentially expressed genes are often important in disease pathogenesis. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is a genome-wide approach that enriches for differentially(More)
The molecular pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is not well understood. Gene expression profiling has the potential to identify new pathways and altered molecules in ALD. Gene expression profiles of ALD in a baboon model and humans were compared using DNA arrays. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were used(More)