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West Nile virus (WNV)-mediated neuronal death is a hallmark of WNV meningitis and encephalitis. However, the mechanisms of WNV-induced neuronal damage are not well understood. We investigated WNV neuropathogenesis by using human neuroblastoma cells and primary rat hippocampal neurons. We observed that WNV activates multiple unfolded protein response (UPR)(More)
Stable expression of a transgene may lead to increased fitness for wild plants after acquiring the transgene via crop-weed hybridization. Here, we investigate the stability of Bt toxin content in wild Brassica rapa acquiring the Bt gene from Bt Brassica napus. The Bt toxin content in nine Bt-expressing B. napus lines was 0.80-1.70 micro g/g leaf tissue(More)
Release of transgenic insect-resistant crops creates the potential not only for the insect pest to evolve resistance but for the escape of transgenes that may confer novel or enhanced fitness-related traits through hybridization with their wild relatives. The differential response of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) populations in eastern and western(More)
Most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) display a broad host range. Since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of PanAsia topotype FMDV serotype O has caused epidemics in the Far East, Africa, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout Europe and Asia. In contrast, there are several FMDV isolates that(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), and related flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue viruses, constitute a significant global human health problem. However, our understanding of the molecular interaction of such flaviviruses with mammalian host cells is limited. WNV encodes only 10 proteins, implying that it may(More)
Alert correlation systems are post-processing modules that enable intrusion analysts to find important alerts and filter false posi-tives efficiently from the output of Intrusion Detection Systems. Typically , however, these modules require high levels of human involvement in creating the system and/or maintaining it, as patterns of attacks change as often(More)
In this paper, we report the first empirical study and live test of the reserve price optimisation problem in the context of Real-Time Bidding (RTB) display advertising from an operational environment. A reserve price is the minimum that the auctioneer would accept from bidders in auctions, and in a second price auction it could potentially uplift the(More)
The timing of vaccine availability is essential for an effective response to pandemic influenza. In 2009, vaccine became available after the disease peak, and this has motivated the development of next generation vaccine technologies for more rapid responses. The SAM(®) vaccine platform, now in pre-clinical development, is based on a synthetic,(More)