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Highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 are the causative agents of fowl plague in poultry. Influenza A viruses of subtype H5N1 also caused severe respiratory disease in humans in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2003, including at least seven fatal cases, posing a serious human pandemic threat. Between the end of February and the end of May(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Distinct allelic types of Helicobacter pylori vacA have been defined. The geographic distribution of vacA alleles and cagA was assessed in this study. METHODS A total of 735 cultures from patients in 24 countries were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization on a line probe assay (LiPA). RESULTS In 124 (16.9%) of(More)
BACKGROUND Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the consequences of ASB are in these women. OBJECTIVE To compare women with DM with and without ASB for the development of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs), renal function, and secondary complications(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in developed countries are recognized as an imported disease related to travel to endemic regions. However, increasing evidence suggests that HEV infection may also occur in the developed countries and that swine may act as a possible reservoir. To investigate the indigenous transmission of HEV in the Netherlands, sera(More)
and my colleagues in the Arguments and Evidence workshop at the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business for their help and encouragement. In addition, audiences at Stanford, Harvard, Northwestern, and MIT were extremely valuable. Katherine Schipper and J. Douglas Hanna provided assistance with the Zacks data. All mistakes are my own, of course.(More)
We describe the Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands with emphasis on the epidemiological characteristics of acute Q fever patients and the association with veterinary factors. Data from 3264 notifications for acute Q fever in the period from 2007 through 2009 were analysed. The patients most affected were men, smokers and persons aged 40–60 years. Pneumonia(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007, 2008, and 2009 outbreaks of Q-fever occurred in The Netherlands with increasing magnitude. The 2009 outbreak with 2354 reported cases is the largest human Q-fever outbreak ever recorded. To assess the extent of infection and the safety of donated blood, we tested local blood donations for presence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies and DNA.(More)
A surveillance programme was started after a period of high infection rates in an orthopaedic surgical department. The programme was aimed at reducing infection rates in elective hip and knee replacement procedures, and at creating awareness of infection control practices in an acute hospital. Possible causes of the initial high infection rates were(More)
Since the steady rise in human cases which started in 2007, Q fever has become a major public health problem in the Netherlands with 2,357 human cases notified in the year 2009. Ongoing research confirms that abortion waves on dairy goat farms are the primary source of infection for humans, primarily affecting people living close (under 5 km) to such a(More)
The Netherlands is again facing a sharp increase in Q fever notifications, after the unprecedented outbreaks of 2007 and 2008. The most affected province of Noord Brabant has a high density of large dairy goat farms, and farms with abortion waves have been incriminated. Mandatory vaccination of small ruminants has started and should have an effect in 2010.(More)