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BACKGROUND Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a key candidate susceptibility gene for both schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD). The function of the NRG1 transmembrane proteins is regulated by cleavage. Alteration of membrane bound-NRG1 cleavage has been previously shown to be associated with behavioral impairments in mouse models lacking expression of(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying brain changes in schizophrenia has been a major research focus for many years. Although impressive gains have been made in neuroimaging and brain electrophysiology, molecular and cellular markers of schizophrenia have lagged. There are no consistent biochemical markers for schizophrenia pathophysiology and none that reflect treatment(More)
In this study, the authors sought to replicate the findings of reduced synaptosomal associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia. The authors also measured N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor 1 (NR1) receptor subunit to determine if glutamatergic synapses were involved with the loss of SNAP-25. We(More)
While prior research has considered the desirability and implications of employee mobility, less research has considered factors affecting the ease of mobility. This paper explores a legal constraint on mobility —employee noncompete agreements—by exploiting Michigan's apparently-inadvertent 1985 reversal of its enforcement policy as a natural experiment.(More)
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder is a prevalent, disabling, and often chronic or recurrent psychiatric condition. About 35% of patients fail to respond to conventional treatment approaches and are considered to have treatment-resistant depression (TRD). OBJECTIVE We compared the safety and effectiveness of different stimulation levels of adjunctive(More)
Current symptom rating scales and diagnostic categories for bipolar disorder (BD) do not provide dimensional profiles of the types of behavior disturbed in this complex disorder. To overcome these limitations we identified the principal domains of behavioral symptomatology in bipolar individuals, including all mood states, and used a more comprehensive(More)
OBJECTIVE Across ethnicity/race, prevalence rates of bipolar disorder are similar. However, African Americans and Latinos may receive less specialty mental health treatment and different medications, and may be less adherent to treatment regimens than European American patients. This study compared illness characteristics, treatment history, and overall(More)
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether ultrasonography is as sensitive and specific as chest x ray or computed tomography (CT) scan in detecting haemothorax after chest trauma. Thirty-nine papers were found using the reported searches, of which six presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of(More)
We hypothesized that stimulant abusers would sleep more and have more rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than primary alcoholics during acute withdrawal (first 10 days drug free) but would have opposite patterns during subacute withdrawal (days 11-14 drug free). We compared polygraphic sleep patterns during acute withdrawal (days 3-10) for 7 stimulant abusers(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reports have suggested that lamotrigine is effective as an antidepressant augmentation agent in patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression. This study is the largest double-blind placebo-controlled study conducted to date of lamotrigine in this role. METHOD In this multicenter trial, conducted at 19 sites, patients aged(More)