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The nature of the deficit underlying age-related muscle wasting remains controversial. To test whether it could be due to a poor anabolic response to dietary amino acids, we measured the rates of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in 44 healthy young and old men, of similar body build, after ingesting different amounts of essential(More)
Amino acid transporters at the surface of cells are in an ideal location to relay nutritional information, as well as nutrients themselves, to the cell interior. These transporters are able to modulate signaling downstream of intracellular amino acid receptors by regulating intracellular amino acid concentrations through processes of coupled transport. The(More)
Amino acid availability regulates cellular physiology by modulating gene expression and signal transduction pathways. However, although the signalling intermediates between nutrient availability and altered gene expression have become increasingly well documented, how eukaryotic cells sense the presence of either a nutritionally rich or deprived medium is(More)
We have investigated the effect of chronic competitive inhibition of SNAT2 (System A) amino acid (AA) transport, induced by incubation with a saturating dose of a non-metabolisable System A amino acid analogue (Me-AIB), on growth and proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in complete culture medium. These cells express Na+- and pH-dependent SNAT2(More)
Nutrient signalling by the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway involves upstream sensing of free AA (amino acid) concentrations. Several AA-regulated kinases have recently been identified as putative intracellular AA sensors. Their activity will reflect the balance between AA flows through underlying mechanisms which together determine the size of(More)
In mammalian cells, amino acids affect the phosphorylation state and function of several proteins involved in mRNA translation that are regulated via the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. These include ribosomal protein S6 kinase, S6K1, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein, 4E-BP1. Amino acids, especially(More)
OBJECTIVE This longitudinal study examined the effects of tobacco and marijuana use during pregnancy on the gestational age, growth, and morphology of 310 offspring of adolescents. Data were collected during 1990 through 1993. METHODOLOGY The adolescents were drawn from a prenatal clinic in Pittsburgh, PA. They were interviewed at mid-pregnancy and at(More)
T lymphocytes must regulate nutrient uptake to meet the metabolic demands of an immune response. Here we show that the intracellular supply of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) in T cells was regulated by pathogens and the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). T cells responded to antigen by upregulating expression of many amino-acid transporters, but a single(More)
Mammalian nutrient sensors are novel targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states such as insulin resistance and muscle wasting; however, the proteins responsible for this important task are largely uncharacterized. To address this issue we have dissected an amino acid (AA) sensor/effector regulon that controls the expression of the System A amino(More)
The System L transporter facilitates cellular import of large neutral amino acids (AAs) such as Leu, a potent activator of the intracellular target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway, which signals for cell growth. System L is an AA exchanger, proposed to accumulate certain AAs by coupling to dissipation of concentration gradient(s) of exchange substrates generated(More)