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Elevated concentrations of cytotoxic acetate are found in many environmental niches, and few species are relatively resistant to acetate. In particular the high-level acetate resistance of so-called acetic acid bacteria that occurs in industrial settings must be constantly selected for. To investigate the nature of such high-level resistance, we grew the(More)
As a typical product of microbial metabolism, the weak acid acetate is well known for its cytotoxic effects. In contrast to most other microbes, the so-called acetic acid bacteria can acquire significant resistance to high acetate concentrations when properly adapted to such hostile conditions. To characterize the molecular events that are associated with(More)
Increased resistance to several weak organic acids was conferred on Escherichia coli by overexpression of the ATP-dependent helicase RecG and, to a lesser extent, by overexpressing the helicase RuvAB. This property of helicases was identified by reproducible selection of recG-bearing clones from genomic libraries of the acetate-resistant species Acetobacter(More)
The assumption of strongly ignorable treatment assignment is required for eliminating selection bias in observational studies. To meet this assumption, researchers often rely on a strategy of selecting covariates that they think will control for selection bias. Theory indicates that the most important covariates are those highly correlated with both the(More)
In this article, we review past studies comparing randomized experiments to regression discontinuity designs, mostly finding similar results, but with significant exceptions. The latter might be due to potential confounds of study characteristics with assignment method or with failure to estimate the same parameter over methods. In this study, we correct(More)
In this article, we note the many ontological, epistemological, and methodological similarities between how Campbell and Rubin conceptualize causation. We then explore 3 differences in their written emphases about individual case matching in observational studies. We contend that (a) Campbell places greater emphasis than Rubin on the special role of pretest(More)
Oral contraceptives, estrogens, progestagens and anabolic-androgenic compounds have extensive effects on plasma triglycerides and on triglyceride clearing enzymes. This review will center on recent advances in the understanding of the mode of action of these compounds, both in normals and in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia.