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Several learning theory based models propose that substance users may have conditioned reactions to stimuli (cues) associated with substance use and that these reactions may increase the probability of relapse. The conditioned withdrawal, conditioned compensatory response, and appetitive motivational models were evaluated in light of empirical evidence from(More)
This study evaluated the use of a brief motivational interview (MI) to reduce alcohol-related consequences and use among adolescents treated in an emergency room (ER) following an alcohol-related event. Patients aged 18 to 19 years (N = 94) were randomly assigned to receive either MI or standard care (SC). Assessment and intervention were conducted in the(More)
The mechanisms of naltrexone's effects on urges to drink during abstinence are unclear. Naltrexone may suppress either urges to drink specifically or appetitive responses in general. The effects of naltrexone on cue reactivity to alcoholic and sweet nonalcoholic beverages were investigated. Alcohol-dependent men (N = 53) in treatment received naltrexone (50(More)
Social learning theories suggest that conditioned responses may increase the risk for relapse. Responses to alcohol use cues (cue reactivity) are associated with variables suggestive of risk but little research exists on the relationship of cue reactivity to treatment outcome. Alcoholic men admitted for detoxification to a treatment program (n = 45)(More)
Across studies, when presented with a variety of smoking cues, smokers and ex-smokers evidence distinct patterns of self-reported, physiological, and behavioral reactions. However, few studies have compared more than two different kinds of cues within the same experiment. Furthermore, despite the importance of examining the moderating effect of gender on(More)
Although early investigations were promising, no controlled follow-up studies have investigated the effectiveness of cue exposure treatment for alcoholics. In this study, inpatient alcoholics received either cue exposure integrated with urge coping skills training (CET, n = 22) or a contrast condition (CC) involving daily contact with assessment only (n =(More)
RATIONALE Although naltrexone has been widely researched in the context of drinking and smoking behaviors, with each substance studied separately, little is known about the effects of naltrexone on craving for cigarettes during alcohol intoxication. OBJECTIVES The present study used a within-subjects double-blind placebo-controlled design to (1) examine(More)
OBJECTIVE There were two specific goals for the current study: (1) to demonstrate that adolescents display drug-specific cue reactivity to alcohol and cigarette visual cues that varies based on drug-use history and (2) to test the unique contribution of adolescents' avoidance reactions to alcohol and cigarette cues, independent of approach/craving reaction.(More)
Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC)(More)
Previous work has shown that attempts to deliberately suppress a given thought is associated with heightened accessibility of thought-related information both during and following suppression (Wegner, 1994, Psychological Review, 101, 34-52). This study examined whether attempts to suppress the urge for alcohol would similarly be associated with heightened(More)