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Comparative studies of chondrocranial morphology in larval anurans are typically qualitative in nature, focusing primarily on discrete variation or gross differences in the size or shape of individual structures. Detailed data on chondrocranial allometry are currently limited to only two species, Rana sylvatica and Bufo americanus. This study uses geometric(More)
The visuospatial ability referred to as mental rotation has been shown to produce one of the largest and most consistent sex differences, in favor of males, in the cognitive literature. The current study utilizes both a paper-and-pencil version of the mental rotations test (MRT) and a virtual environment for investigating rotational ability among 44 adult(More)
Advanced titanosaurian sauropods, such as nemegtosaurids and saltasaurids, were diverse and one of the most important groups of herbivores in the terrestrial biotas of the Late Cretaceous. However, little is known about their rise and diversification prior to the Late Cretaceous. Furthermore, the evolution of their highly-modified skull anatomy has been(More)
This study provides the first data on muscle activity patterns during active feeding in a larval anuran. Data regarding muscle function during gill irrigation and hyperexpiration are also provided. Electromyographic and kinematic data were recorded from six mandibular and hyoid muscles in unanesthetized, unrestrained larvae of Rana catesbeiana. Only three(More)
This study provides baseline quantitative data on the morphological development of the chondrocranium in a larval anuran. Both linear and geometric morphometric methods are used to quantitatively analyze size-related shape change in a complete developmental series of larvae of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica. The null hypothesis of isometry was rejected in(More)
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