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To examine the role of telomerase in normal and neoplastic growth, the telomerase RNA component (mTR) was deleted from the mouse germline. mTR-/- mice lacked detectable telomerase activity yet were viable for the six generations analyzed. Telomerase-deficient cells could be immortalized in culture, transformed by viral oncogenes, and generated tumors in(More)
The proliferative life-span of the stem cells that sustain hematopoiesis throughout life is not known. It has been proposed that the sequential loss of telomeric DNA from the ends of human chromosomes with each somatic cell division eventually reaches a critical point that triggers cellular senescence. We now show that candidate human stem cells with a(More)
Telomeres play a central role in cell fate and aging by adjusting the cellular response to stress and growth stimulation on the basis of previous cell divisions and DNA damage. At least a few hundred nucleotides of telomere repeats must "cap" each chromosome end to avoid activation of DNA repair pathways. Repair of critically short or "uncapped" telomeres(More)
Vertebrate chromosomes terminate in variable numbers of T2AG3 nucleotide repeats. In order to study telomere repeats at individual chromosomes, we developed novel, quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization procedures using labeled (C3TA2)3 peptide nucleic acid and digital imaging microscopy. Telomere fluorescence intensity values from metaphase(More)
The ultra-long telomeres that have been observed in mice are not in accordance with the concept that critical telomere shortening is related to aging and immortalization. Here, we have used quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization to estimate (T2AG3)n lengths of individual telomeres in various mouse strains. Telomere lengths were very heterogeneous,(More)
Human chromosomes terminate in a series of T2AG3 repeats, which, together with associated proteins, are essential for chromosome stability. In somatic cells, these sequences are known to be gradually lost through successive cells divisions; however, information about changes on specific chromosomes is not available. Individual telomeres could mediate(More)
Human mononuclear leukocytes produce a growth factor (HGF) for hybridoma and plasmacytoma cells. HGF has recently been proven to be identical to IFN-beta 2, 26-kDa protein and BSF-2. HGF can be quantitated in a proliferation assay with the HGF-dependent hybridoma cell line B13.29. By selection of an extremely sensitive variant of this cell line, we were(More)
To study the effect of continued telomere shortening on chromosome stability, we have analyzed the telomere length of two individual chromosomes (chromosomes 2 and 11) in fibroblasts derived from wild-type mice and from mice lacking the mouse telomerase RNA (mTER) gene using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Telomere length at both(More)
To study telomere length dynamics in hematopoietic cells with age, we analyzed the average length of telomere repeat sequences in diverse populations of nucleated blood cells. More than 500 individuals ranging in age from 0 to 90 yr, including 36 pairs of monozygous and dizygotic twins, were analyzed using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and(More)
To measure the average length of telomere repeats at chromosome ends in individual cells we developed a flow cytometry method using fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow FISH) with labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Results of flow FISH measurements correlated with results of conventional telomere length measurements by Southern blot analysis (R(More)