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Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured in a rat spinal cord weight-drop injury model. After sacrifice, the spinal cords were fixed in situ and excised for MR imaging and ADC measurement. Diffusion is anisotropic in normal gray and white matter. There were significant decreases in ADCs measured along the longitudinal axis of the injured cord and(More)
Phantoms for evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging systems were made from water-based agarose gels, according to a standard procedure herein described. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) was included in the gels to further affect their proton relaxation characteristics. The proton relaxation rates of each batch of gel are dependent on the(More)
To investigate the role of MR imaging in wallerian degeneration, a series of animal models of increasingly complex peripheral nerve injury were studied by in vivo MR. Proximal tibial nerves in brown Norway rats were either crushed, transected (neurotomy), or transected and grafted with Lewis rat (allograft) or brown Norway (isograft) donor nerves. The(More)
Human and rat cervical spinal cords were imaged with high-resolution spin-echo and inversion-recovery pulse sequences in an experimental 1.9-T MR system. The gross morphology of the cord was easily discernible in fresh and fixed specimens, including the white and gray commissures, dorsal and ventral horns, and lateral and posterior funiculi. The T1, T2, and(More)
Zero-mean noise introduced into quadrature detected MRI signals is generally rectified by the reconstruction algorithm to give a nonzero background intensity in the displayed image. In low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images, this background will inflate region of interest (ROI) signal measurements, leading to improper T2 and diffusion fits. A method is(More)
  • P M Joseph
  • 1982
It is often desired to calculate line integrals through a field of reconstructed CT density pixels for the purpose of improving CT image quality. Two algorithms widely published and discussed in the past are known to either degrade spatial resolution or generate errors in the results due to the discontinuous "square pixel" modeling of the reconstructed(More)
A method that corrects for artifacts in X-ray transmission scanners created by the alteration of the energy spectrum by bone is described. The method involves two reconstructions of the pictures: the first establishes the approximate distribution of bone and the second enables the artifacts to be eliminated. The first reconstruction is needed to establish(More)
Dual energy CT scanning (tomochemistry) has been proposed as a method for determining various parameters relating to the elemental composition of the tissues. In this paper, our aim is to study the relative noise inherent in two proposed techniques for dual energy scanning; a "two crystal" technique and a "two kV" technique. In the two crystal technique, a(More)
The exponential edge-gradient effect must arise in any x-ray transmission CT scanner whenever long sharp edges of high contrast are encountered. The effect is non-linear and is due to the interaction of the exponential law of x-ray attenuation and the finite width of the scanning beam in the x-y plane. The error induced in the projection values is proved to(More)