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We report the application of a targetable green fluorescent protein-based cellular halide indicator. Fluorescence titrations of the purified recombinant yellow fluorescent protein YFP-H148Q indicated a pK(a) of 7.14 in the absence of Cl(-), which increased to 7.86 at 150 mM Cl(-). At pH 7.5, YFP-H148Q fluorescence decreased maximally by approximately 2-fold(More)
The green fluorescent protein YFP-H148Q is sensitive to halides by a mechanism involving halide binding and a shift in pK(a). However, a limitation of YFP-H148Q is its low halide sensitivity, with K(d)>100 mM for Cl(-). Indicators with improved sensitivities are needed for cell transport studies, particularly in drug discovery by high-throughput screening,(More)
The diffusion of DNA in cytoplasm is thought to be an important determinant of the efficacy of gene delivery and antisense therapy. We have measured the translational diffusion of fluorescein-labeled double-stranded DNA fragments (in base pairs (bp): 21, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 6000) after microinjection into cytoplasm and nucleus of HeLa cells.(More)
Molecular diffusion in the brain extracellular space (ECS) is an important determinant of neural function. We developed a brain surface photobleaching method to measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled macromolecules in the ECS of the cerebral cortex. The ECS in mouse brain was labeled by exposure of the intact dura to fluorescein-dextrans (M(r) 4,(More)
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a cAMP-regulated Cl- channel expressed at the apical plasma membrane. It has been proposed that the C-terminal PDZ binding motif of CFTR is required for its apical membrane targeting and that PDZ-domain interactions may tether CFTR to the actin cytoskeleton via soluble proteins(More)
Confined diffusion of membrane receptors and lipids can result from intramembrane barriers, skeletal interactions, rafts, and other phenomena. We simulated single-particle diffusion in two dimensions in an arbitrary potential, V(r), based on summation of random and potential gradient-driven motions. Algorithms were applied and verified for detection of(More)
Mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-regulated chloride channel, cause cystic fibrosis. To investigate interactions of CFTR in living cells, we measured the diffusion of quantum dot-labeled CFTR molecules by single particle tracking. In multiple cell lines, including airway epithelia, CFTR diffused little in the(More)
Airway submucosal glands have been proposed as a primary site for initiating and sustaining airway disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, it has been difficult to define the role of CFTR in gland fluid secretion because of concerns in interpreting experiments on diseased CF human airways subjected to chronic infection and inflammation. Here, we test the(More)
It was reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is required for acidification of phagosomes in alveolar macrophages (Di, A., Brown, M. E., Deriy, L. V., Li, C., Szeto, F. L., Chen, Y., Huang, P., Tong, J., Naren, A. P., Bindokas, V., Palfrey, H. C., and Nelson, D. J. (2006) Nat. Cell Biol. 8, 933-944). Here we(More)
It has been proposed that defective submucosal gland function in CF airways is a major determinant of CF airway disease. We tested the hypothesis that submucosal gland function is defective early in CF subjects with minimal clinical disease. Functional assays of gland fluid secretion rate and viscosity were performed on freshly obtained nasal biopsies from(More)