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Molecular diffusion in the brain extracellular space (ECS) is an important determinant of neural function. We developed a brain surface photobleaching method to measure the diffusion of fluorescently labeled macromolecules in the ECS of the cerebral cortex. The ECS in mouse brain was labeled by exposure of the intact dura to fluorescein-dextrans (M(r) 4,(More)
The sympathetic nervous system regulates cardiac output by activating adrenergic receptors (ARs) in cardiac myocytes. The predominant cardiac ARs, β(1)- and β(2)AR, are structurally similar but mediate distinct signaling responses. Scaffold protein-mediated compartmentalization of ARs into discrete, multiprotein complexes has been proposed to dictate(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with high mortality rates and occur in diverse conditions including pneumonias, cystic fibrosis and neutropenia. Quorum sensing, mediated by small molecules including N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl) homoserine lactone (C12), regulates P. aeruginosa growth and virulence. In addition, host cell recognition of C12(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Constipation is a common clinical problem that negatively impacts quality of life and is associated with significant health care costs. Activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is the primary pathway that drives fluid secretion in the intestine, which maintains lubrication of luminal contents. We(More)
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