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The declaration of the human influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1/09) raised important questions, including origin and host range [1], [2]. Two of the three pandemics in the last century resulted in the spread of virus to pigs (H1N1, 1918; H3N2, 1968) with subsequent independent establishment and evolution within swine worldwide [3]. A key public and(More)
BACKGROUND Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus, with the aim of mimicking human sepsis and pyemia. METHODS The(More)
Studying the dispersal of small flying insects such as Culicoides constitutes a great challenge due to huge population sizes and lack of a method to efficiently mark and objectively detect many specimens at a time. We here describe a novel mark-release-recapture method for Culicoides in the field using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as marking agent(More)
Trans-tracheal aspirations from 56 apparently healthy calves and 34 calves with clinical signs of pneumonia were collected in six different herds during September and November 2002. The 90 samples were cultivated and investigated by PCR tests targeting the species Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma(More)
The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive and very efficient technique for quantification of gene expression. However, qRT-PCR relies on accurate normalization of gene expression data, as RNA recovery and cDNA synthesis efficiency might vary from sample to sample. In the present study, six putative(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in both infants and calves. As in humans, bovine RSV (BRSV) infections are most severe in the first 6 months of life. In this study, experimental infection with BRSV was performed in calves aged 1-5, 9-16 or 32-37 weeks. Compared to younger animals, older calves showed significantly less(More)
Dendrimers are versatile, derivatisable, well-defined, compartmentalised chemical polymers with sizes and physicochemical properties resembling those of biomolecules e.g. proteins. The present critical review (citing 158 references) briefly describes dendrimer design, nomenclature and divergent/convergent dendrimer synthesis. The characteristic(More)
This study aimed at providing a better understanding of the involvement of innate immune factors, including miRNA, in the local host response to influenza virus infection. Twenty pigs were challenged by influenza A virus subtype H1N2. Expression of microRNA (miRNA), mRNA and proteins were quantified in lung tissue at different time points after challenge(More)
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients believed to beneficially affect host health by selectively stimulating the growth of the beneficial bacteria residing in the gut. Such beneficial bacteria have been reported to protect against pathogenic infections. However, contradicting results on prevention of Salmonella infections with prebiotics have been(More)
Knowledge on gene expression in the liver during respiratory infections is limited although it is well-established that this organ is an important site of synthesis of several systemic innate immune components as response to infections. In the present study, the early transcriptional hepatic response of genes associated with innate immune responses was(More)