Peter M. Frederik

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To increase cationic liposome-mediated intravenous DNA delivery extruded DOTAPicholesterol lipo-somes were used to form complexes with DNA, resulting in enhanced expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in most tissues examined. The DNA:liposome ratio, and mild sonication, heating, and extrusion steps used for liposome preparation were(More)
Fenestrae allow the passage of gene transfer vectors from the sinusoidal lumen to the surface of hepatocytes. We have previously shown that the diameter of fenestrae correlates with species and strain differences of transgene expression following intravenous adenoviral transfer. In the current study, we demonstrate that the diameter of fenestrae in humans(More)
INTRODUCTION Phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization is regarded as one of the earliest hallmarks of cells undergoing programmed cell death. We studied the use of labeled human recombinant annexin-V, a protein selectively binding to PS, to detect cardiomyocyte death in an in vivo mouse model of cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
Phase transitions in closed vesicles, i.e., microenvironments defined by the size of the vesicle, its contents, and permeability of its membrane are becoming increasingly important in several scientific disciplines including catalysis, growth of small crystals, cell function studies, and drug delivery. The membrane composed from lipid bilayer is in general(More)
BACKGROUND Cathepsin K (catK), a lysosomal cysteine protease, was identified in a gene-profiling experiment that compared human early plaques, advanced stable plaques, and advanced atherosclerotic plaques containing a thrombus, where it was highly upregulated in advanced stable plaques. METHODS AND RESULTS To assess the function of catK in(More)
Liposomes can be loaded with weak acids and bases, which exist in solutions in equilibrium with membrane permeable uncharged form, using various gradients across their membranes. Because in some cases the estimated drug concentration in the loaded liposomes exceeds their aqueous solubility we investigated the physical state of the liposome encapsulated(More)
Cationic lipid-nucleic acid complexes (lipoplexes) consisting of dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) liposomes and plasmid DNA were prepared at various charge ratios (cationic group to nucleotide phosphate), and the excess component was separated from the lipoplex. We measured the stoichiometry of the lipoplex, noted its colloidal properties, and(More)
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder caused by autoantibodies that are either directed to the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or to the muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). These autoantibodies define two distinct subforms of the disease-AChR-MG and MuSK-MG. Both AChR and MuSK are expressed on the postsynaptic membrane of the(More)
Biogenic calcium carbonate forms the inorganic component of seashells, otoliths, and many marine skeletons, and its formation is directed by an ordered template of macromolecules. Classical nucleation theory considers crystal formation to occur from a critical nucleus formed by the assembly of ions from solution. Using cryotransmission electron microscopy,(More)
Thin-basement-membrane nephropathy, also called benign recurrent hematuria, is characterized by diffuse thinning of the glomerular basement membrane and by hematuria. To determine the incidence of thin-basement-membrane nephropathy among patients with idiopathic hematuria, we conducted a prospective study in the nephrology units of three large hospitals in(More)