Peter M Clifton

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Resistant starch (RS) is starch and products of its small intestinal digestion that enter the large bowel. It occurs for various reasons including chemical structure, cooking of food, chemical modification, and food mastication. Human colonic bacteria ferment RS and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; major components of dietary fiber) to short-chain fatty(More)
BACKGROUND It is not clear whether varying the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio of weight-loss diets benefits body composition or metabolism. OBJECTIVE The objective was to compare the effects of 2 weight-loss diets differing in protein-to-carbohydrate ratio on body composition, glucose and lipid metabolism, and markers of bone turnover. DESIGN A parallel(More)
BACKGROUND Limited evidence suggests that a higher ratio of protein to carbohydrate during weight loss has metabolic advantages. OBJECTIVE The objective was to evaluate the effects of a diet with a high ratio of protein to carbohydrate during weight loss on body composition, cardiovascular disease risk, nutritional status, and markers of bone turnover and(More)
Overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were randomized to a high protein (HP; 40% carbohydrate and 30% protein; n = 14) or a low protein (LP; 55% carbohydrate and 15% protein) diet (n = 14). The intervention consisted of 12 wk of energy restriction (approximately 6000 kJ/d), followed by 4 wk of weight maintenance. Pregnancies (two HP and one(More)
Fatty acids are the chemical moieties that are thought to stimulate oral nutrient sensors, which detect the fat content of foods. In animals, oral hypersensitivity to fatty acids is associated with decreased fat intake and body weight. The aims of the present study were to investigate oral fatty acid sensitivity, food selection and BMI in human subjects.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of a high-protein (HP) weight loss diet compared with a lower-protein (LP) diet on fat and lean tissue and fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Replacing dietary protein for carbohydrate (CHO) during energy restriction and weight loss has been effective in sparing lean(More)
CONTEXT Although dietary protein produces higher acute satiety relative to carbohydrate, the influence of protein source and body mass index (BMI) has not been clearly described. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess postprandial responses to different protein sources, compared with glucose, in males with normal and high BMI. DESIGN This(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of replacing some dietary carbohydrate with protein, during energy restriction, on weight loss, total energy expenditure (TEE), resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in subjects with hyperinsulinemia. DESIGN Parallel, clinical intervention study of 12 weeks(More)
BACKGROUND The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant sterol esters (PSteE) or stanol esters (PStaE) in regular- and low-fat spreads has been consistently demonstrated, while their effectiveness in a low-fat, aqueous food carrier such as milk and yoghurt is less well established. AIM OF THE STUDY Two studies were carried out to assess the(More)
CONTEXT In overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the benefits of the addition of exercise to an energy-restricted diet in further improving cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive function has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE The objective was to evaluate the effects of aerobic and aerobic-resistance exercise when combined(More)