Peter Loken Hawthorne

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Increasing energy use, climate change, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels make switching to low-carbon fuels a high priority. Biofuels are a potential low-carbon energy source, but whether biofuels offer carbon savings depends on how they are produced. Converting rainforests, peatlands, savannas, or grasslands to produce food crop-based(More)
Although nutrient enrichment frequently decreases biodiversity, it remains unclear whether such biodiversity losses are readily reversible, or are critical transitions between alternative low- and high-diversity stable states that could be difficult to reverse. Our 30-year grassland experiment shows that plant diversity decreased well below control levels(More)
BACKGROUND As the global human population grows and its consumption patterns change, additional land will be needed for living space and agricultural production. A critical question facing global society is how to meet growing human demands for living space, food, fuel, and other materials while sustaining ecosystem services and biodiversity [1]. (More)
An important goal in community ecology is to understand the interactions between multiple mechanisms – species differences and niche differentiation, stochasticity, environmental heterogeneity, and spatial processes – and their consequences to community structure. In this dissertation, I address three distinct issues within this general program. First,(More)
Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the(More)
" blue-fluorescent antibody " EP2-19G2 should really be called a " blue-emissive " or " blue-luminescent " antibody. Because roughly 3 eV of photon energy is stored in the charge-transfer excited state, it is predicted to be both a powerful reductant and oxidant. We examined the redox activity of the charge-transfer state in experiments in which irradiation(More)
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