Peter Littlejohns

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A need was identified for a fixed-format self-complete questionnaire for measuring health in chronic airflow limitation. A 76-item questionnaire was developed, the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Three component scores were calculated: symptoms, activity, and impacts (on daily life), and a total score. Three studies were performed. (1)(More)
From McMaster University (Brouwers, Kho, Hanna, Makarski); the Program in Evidence-based Care, Cancer Care Ontario (Brouwers), Hamilton, Ontario; British Columbia Cancer Agency (Browman), Victoria, BC; the Dutch Institute for Healthcare Improvement CBO and IQ Healthcare (Burgers), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, the Netherlands; St. George’s(More)
Surgery and other invasive therapies are complex interventions, the assessment of which is challenged by factors that depend on operator, team, and setting, such as learning curves, quality variations, and perception of equipoise. We propose recommendations for the assessment of surgery based on a five-stage description of the surgical development process.(More)
BACKGROUND Most patients with breast cancer are detected after symptoms occur rather than through screening. The impact on survival of delays between the onset of symptoms and the start of treatment is controversial and cannot be studied in randomised controlled trials. We did a systematic review of observational studies (worldwide) of duration of symptoms(More)
BACKGROUND Delayed presentation of symptomatic breast cancer is associated with lower survival. Understanding of the factors that influence delay is important for the development of strategies to shorten delays. We did a systematic review to assess the quality and strength of evidence on risk factors for delays by patients and providers. METHODS We(More)
Enormous investment has gone into computerised hospital information systems worldwide. The estimated costs for each large hospital are about $50m (£33m), yet the overall benefits and costs of hospital information systems have rarely been assessed. When systems are evaluated, about three quarters are considered to have failed, and there is no evidence that(More)
Research on surgical interventions is associated with several methodological and practical challenges of which few, if any, apply only to surgery. However, surgical evaluation is especially demanding because many of these challenges coincide. In this report, the second of three on surgical innovation and evaluation, we discuss obstacles related to the study(More)
BACKGROUND Despite clinical guidelines penetrating every aspect of clinical practice and health policy, doubts persist over their ability to improve patient care. We have designed and tested a generic critical appraisal instrument, that assesses whether developers have minimized the biases inherent in creating guidelines, and addressed the requirements for(More)
Surgical innovation is an important part of surgical practice. Its assessment is complex because of idiosyncrasies related to surgical practice, but necessary so that introduction and adoption of surgical innovations can derive from evidence-based principles rather than trial and error. A regulatory framework is also desirable to protect patients against(More)