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  • INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS, Katrina Attwood, +24 authors CONTRIBUTING ORGANISATIONS
  • 2011
FOREWORD This Standard has two intended functions. Firstly, it seeks to provide a comprehensive, authoritative definition of the Goal Structuring Notation (GSN). Secondly, it aims to provide clear guidance on current best practice in the use of the notation for those concerned with the development and evaluation of engineering arguments – argument owners,(More)
BACKGROUND Most patients with breast cancer are detected after symptoms occur rather than through screening. The impact on survival of delays between the onset of symptoms and the start of treatment is controversial and cannot be studied in randomised controlled trials. We did a systematic review of observational studies (worldwide) of duration of symptoms(More)
Surgery and other invasive therapies are complex interventions, the assessment of which is challenged by factors that depend on operator, team, and setting, such as learning curves, quality variations, and perception of equipoise. We propose recommendations for the assessment of surgery based on a five-stage description of the surgical development process.(More)
Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage [UHC; World Health Organization (WHO), 2014] is to be welcomed because tackling the relationship between cost-effectiveness and fairness has been given too little attention in policy-making. The consensus that universal coverage is a good thing quickly disperses as the concept is translated into(More)
Research on surgical interventions is associated with several methodological and practical challenges of which few, if any, apply only to surgery. However, surgical evaluation is especially demanding because many of these challenges coincide. In this report, the second of three on surgical innovation and evaluation, we discuss obstacles related to the study(More)
BACKGROUND Delayed presentation of symptomatic breast cancer is associated with lower survival. Understanding of the factors that influence delay is important for the development of strategies to shorten delays. We did a systematic review to assess the quality and strength of evidence on risk factors for delays by patients and providers. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of currently used bariatric surgical procedures on the development of diabetes in obese people is not well defined. We aimed to assess the effect of bariatric surgery on development of type 2 diabetes in a large population of obese individuals. METHODS We did a matched cohort study of adults (age 20–100 years) identified from a(More)
The requirements of the UK Equality Act 2010 and some high profile criticism for using a potentially ageist methodology have prompted the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to assess the processes and methodology it uses to make appraisal decisions. This paper argues that NICE has established rigorous systems to protect against(More)
Surgical innovation is an important part of surgical practice. Its assessment is complex because of idiosyncrasies related to surgical practice, but necessary so that introduction and adoption of surgical innovations can derive from evidence-based principles rather than trial and error. A regulatory framework is also desirable to protect patients against(More)
The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We(More)