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Most human pre-mRNAs are spliced into linear molecules that retain the exon order defined by the genomic sequence. By deep sequencing of RNA from a variety of normal and malignant human cells, we found RNA transcripts from many human genes in which the exons were arranged in a non-canonical order. Statistical estimates and biochemical assays provided strong(More)
Thousands of loci in the human and mouse genomes give rise to circular RNA transcripts; at many of these loci, the predominant RNA isoform is a circle. Using an improved computational approach for circular RNA identification, we found widespread circular RNA expression in Drosophila melanogaster and estimate that in humans, circular RNA may account for 1%(More)
The transcription factor Gata6 regulates proliferation and differentiation of epithelial and endocrine cells and cancers. Among hematopoietic cells, Gata6 is expressed selectively in resident peritoneal macrophages. We thus examined whether the loss of Gata6 in the macrophage compartment affected peritoneal macrophages, using Lyz2-Cre x Gata6(flox/flox)(More)
An unexpectedly large fraction of genes in metazoans (human, mouse, zebrafish, worm, fruit fly) express high levels of circularized RNAs containing canonical exons. Here we report that circular RNA isoforms are found in diverse species whose most recent common ancestor existed more than one billion years ago: fungi (Schizosaccharomyces pombe and(More)
Pervasive expression of circular RNA is a recently discovered feature of eukaryotic gene expression programs, yet its function remains largely unknown. The presumed biogenesis of these RNAs involves a non-canonical 'backsplicing' event. Recent studies in mammalian cell culture posit that backsplicing is facilitated by inverted repeats flanking the(More)
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by delays in social interactions and communication as well as displays of restrictive/repetitive interests. DNA copy number variants have been identified as a genomic susceptibility factor in ASDs and imply significant genetic heterogeneity. We report a 7-year-old female(More)
Every year, ovarian cancer kills approximately 14,000 women in the United States and more than 140,000 women worldwide. Most of these deaths are caused by tumors of the serous histological type, which is rarely diagnosed before it has disseminated. By deep paired-end sequencing of mRNA from serous ovarian cancers, followed by deep sequencing of the(More)
Mutations in the Aire gene result in a clinical phenomenon known as Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS) Type I, which classically manifests as a triad of adrenal insufficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and chronic mucocutaneous infections. In addition to this triad, a number of other autoimmune diseases have been observed in APS1 patients including Sjögren's(More)
The pervasive expression of circular RNA is a recently discovered feature of gene expression in highly diverged eukaryotes, but the functions of most circular RNAs are still unknown. Computational methods to discover and quantify circular RNA are essential. Moreover, discovering biological contexts where circular RNAs are regulated will shed light on(More)