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In many cell types, bidirectional long-range endosome transport is mediated by the opposing motor proteins dynein and kinesin-3. Here we use a fungal model system to investigate how both motors cooperate in early endosome (EE) motility. It was previously reported that Kin3, a member of the kinesin-3 family, and cytoplasmic dynein mediate bidirectional(More)
Type IV pili (T4P) are surface structures that undergo extension/retraction oscillations to generate cell motility. In Myxococcus xanthus, T4P are unipolarly localized and undergo pole-to-pole oscillations synchronously with cellular reversals. We investigated the mechanisms underlying these oscillations. We show that several T4P proteins localize(More)
Synchronization and wave formation in one-dimensional ciliary arrays are studied analytically and numerically. We develop a simple model for ciliary motion that is complex enough to describe well the behavior of beating cilia but simple enough to study collective effects analytically. Beating cilia are described as phase oscillators moving on circular(More)
Oscillations pervade biological systems at all scales. In bacteria, oscillations control fundamental processes, including gene expression, cell cycle progression, cell division, DNA segregation and cell polarity. Oscillations are generated by biochemical oscillators that incorporate the periodic variation in a parameter over time to generate an oscillatory(More)
Cooperative interactions are essential to the operation of many biochemical networks. Such networks then respond ultrasensitively in a nonlinear manner to linear changes in network input, and network output, for example, levels of a phosphorylated protein or of gene expression, becomes a sigmoidal function of concentrations of input molecules. We present a(More)
Recent experimental studies have revealed that bacteria, such as C. crescentus, show a remarkable spatial ordering of their chromosome. A strong linear correlation has been found between the position of genes on the chromosomal map and their spatial position in the cellular volume. We show that this correlation can be explained by a purely geometrical(More)
We studied the elastic properties and mechanical stability of viral capsids under external force-loading with computer simulations. Our approach allows the implementation of specific geometries corresponding to specific phages, such as phi29 and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus. We demonstrate how, in a combined numerical and experimental approach, the elastic(More)
In Escherichia coli the Min protein system plays an important role in positioning the division site. We show that this system also has an effect on timing of cell division. We do this in a quantitative way by measuring the cell division waiting time (defined as time difference between appearance of a division site and the division event) and the Z-ring(More)
We recently introduced a method to tether intact phospholipid vesicles onto a fluid supported lipid bilayer using DNA hybridization (Yoshina-Ishii, C.; Miller, G. P.; Kraft, M. L; Kool, E. T.; Boxer, S. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 1356-1357). Once tethered, the vesicles can diffuse in two dimensions parallel to the supported membrane surface. The(More)
Engineered bacteria in which motility is reduced by local cell density generate periodic stripes of high and low density when spotted on agar plates. We study theoretically the origin and mechanism of this process in a kinetic model that includes growth and density-suppressed motility of the cells. The spreading of a region of immotile cells into an(More)