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An approach to optical packet switching is discussed, which uses small, simplified optical elements for traffic routing, merging, and shaping. The elements are constructed from 2 2 switches and optical delay lines, and may be implemented in a variety of technologies. They are designed for use with deflection routing, and even when using only six switches in(More)
It is widely accepted that future capacity demands will require the deployment of dense small cell networks most surely co-existing with legacy macro cell deployments forming a so-called heterogeneous network (HetNet). Whereas network capacity can benefit from these dense small cell deployments, mobility management becomes increasingly complex to handle,(More)
The temporal behavior of the optical frequency emitted by several DFB lasers under direct square wave modulation was measured using an all-fiber implementation of a Mach–Zender interferometer with an imbalance of 30 ps. The impulse response of the optical frequency to injection current modulation was found to contain a time constant as short as 10–20 ns,(More)
LTE Hetnet deployments using pico cells raise many questions regarding their deployment and operation. This study addresses some key questions using a system simulator and three different traffic models, FTP, HTTP and real-time video. Uplink and downlink are considered. Conclusions drawn from previous work are verified using these models. It is found that(More)
Intra-frequency handover is an important RRM procedure in LTE and the (self-) optimisation of its performance, in terms of handover reliability and handover frequency, has been studied extensively by 3GPP. In this paper, we present a simulation analysis of the handover performance in an LTE macro deployment, considering the gains from uplink ICIC. It is(More)
Mobility Robustness Optimization (MRO) is proposed in Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks to improve handover performance by 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project). However, conventional MRO algorithms which tune cell (-pair) level handover parameters that control the generation of measurement reports have restricted gain because of the uneven(More)