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Astrocytes provide the glutamine required by neurons to synthesize glutamate and GABA. However, the mechanisms involved in glutamine transfer from glia to neurons have remained poorly understood. Recent work has implicated the System N transporter SN1 in the efflux of glutamine from astrocytes and the very closely related System A transporters SA1 and SA2(More)
Immune-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis is critical for fever and other centrally elicited disease symptoms. The production of PGE2 depends on cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but the identity of the cells involved has been a matter of controversy. We generated mice expressing mPGES-1 either in cells of(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent evidence suggests that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM) are located in areas where the environment is hypoxic. Although previous studies have demonstrated positive effects by hypoxia, its role in HSC maintenance has not been fully elucidated, neither has the molecular mechanisms been delineated. Here, we have(More)
Riparian buffer zones are the only measure which has been used extensively in Sweden to reduce phosphorus losses from agricultural land. This paper describes how the FyrisSKZ web tool can be used to evaluate allocation scenarios using data from the Svärta River, an agricultural catchment located in central Sweden. Three scenarios are evaluated: a baseline,(More)
Density-functional theory is used to assess the validity of modeling metal clusters as single atoms or rings of atoms when determining adhesion strengths between clusters and single-walled carbon nanotubes ͑SWNTs͒. Representing a cluster by a single atom or ring gives the correct trends in SWNT-cluster adhesion strengths ͑FeϷ CoϾ Ni͒, but the single-atom(More)
Placed in the cell membrane (a two-dimensional environment), ion channels and enzymes are able to sense voltage. How these proteins are able to detect the difference in the voltage across membranes has attracted much attention, and at times, heated debate during the last few years. Sodium, Ca2+ and K+ voltage-dependent channels have a conserved positively(More)
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