Peter Laing

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Peptide and protein drugs are a growing class of therapeutics. However, their effective application in the clinic is compromised by problems, for instance proteolysis in the circulating blood, premature clearance through the kidneys, and immunogenicity. A number of approaches have been used to circumvent such shortcomings including changes in the primary(More)
Polysialic acids (PSA) (colominic acid; CA) of 22 and 39 kDa average molecular weight were oxidized with sodium periodate at carbon 7 of the nonreducing end to form an aldehyde group. The oxidized CAs (96-99% oxidation) were then reacted with the amino groups of recombinant human insulin at various CA/insulin molar ratios (25:1 to 150:1 range) for up to 48(More)
BACKGROUND Antibody against CD40 is effective in enhancing immune responses to vaccines when chemically conjugated to the vaccine antigen. Unfortunately the requirement for chemical conjugation presents some difficulties in vaccine production and quality control which are compounded when multivalent vaccines are required. We explore here an alternative to(More)
DNA vaccination with mammalian-expressible plasmid DNA encoding protein antigens is known to be an effective means to elicit cell-mediated immunity, sometimes in the absence of a significant antibody response. This may be contrasted with protein vaccination, which gives rise to antibody responses with little evidence of cell-mediated immunity. This has led(More)
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