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BACKGROUND The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL cholesterol. OBJECTIVE The objective was to evaluate the effects of(More)
Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols) are well known for their LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering effect. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults was performed to establish a continuous dose-response relationship that would allow predicting the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of different phytosterol doses. Eighty-four trials including 141 trial(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of fish oil on heart rate (HR), a major risk factor for sudden death, is not well established. We calculated this effect in a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS Randomized trials of fish oil that evaluated HR were identified through MEDLINE (1966 through January 2005),(More)
CONTEXT Very-long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) from fish are thought to reduce risk of sudden death, possibly by reducing susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. OBJECTIVE To study the effect of supplemental fish oil vs placebo on ventricular tachyarrhythmia or death. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS The Study on Omega-3 Fatty acids(More)
The cholesterol-raising effect of dietary saturated fatty acids is largely accounted for by lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids. Dairy fat is a major source of myristic acid, and palm oil is especially rich in palmitic acid. Myristic acid is suspected of being much more cholesterolemic than palmitic acid, but direct comparisons have been lacking. We(More)
Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those phenols in humans. We measured their absorption in eight(More)
BACKGROUND During pregnancy there is a high demand for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is needed for formation of the fetal brain. Women who do not consume marine foods must synthesize DHA from fatty acid precursors in vegetable foods. OBJECTIVE We studied sex differences in DHA status and the role of sex hormones. DESIGN First, DHA status was(More)
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of linoleic acid (cis,cis-C18:2(n-6)) and its hydrogenation products elaidic (trans-C18:1(n-9)) and stearic acid (C18:0) on serum lipoprotein levels in humans. Twenty-six men and 30 women, all normolipemic and apparently healthy, completed the trial. Three experimental diets were supplied to every(More)
To estimate in vivo alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; C18:3n-3) conversion, 29 healthy subjects consumed for 28 days a diet providing 7% of energy from linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and 0.4% from ALA. On day 19, subjects received a single bolus of 30 mg of uniformly labeled [(13)C]ALA and for the next 8 days 10 mg twice daily. Fasting plasma phospholipid concentrations(More)
BACKGROUND In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE We studied whether chlorogenic acid affects plasma total homocysteine(More)