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The Center for Adaptive Optics Treasury Survey (CATS) aims to combine deep HST images in the optical with deep Keck adaptive optics (AO) data in the near-infrared (NIR) to study distant galaxies, AGN, and supernovae. We recently achieved an important new milestone by securing the first Keck laser guide star AO image of faint galaxies. Six galaxies with(More)
A modification to the usual phase shifting interferometry algorithm permits measurements to be taken fast enough to essentially freeze out vibrations. Only two interferograms are time critical in this 2 + 1 algorithm; the third is null. The implemented system acquires the two time critical interferograms with a 1-millisecond separation on either side of the(More)
We present a detailed investigation of different methods of the characterization of atmospheric turbulence with the adaptive optics systems of the W. M. Keck Observatory. The main problems of such a characterization are the separation of instrumental and atmospheric effects and the accurate calibration of the devices involved. Therefore we mostly describe(More)
We have searched the four brightest objects in the Kuiper belt for the presence of satellites using the newly commissioned Keck Observatory Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system. Satellites are seen around three of the four objects: Pluto (whose satellite Charon is well-known), 2003 EL61, and 2003 UB313. The object 2005 FY9, the brightest Kuiper belt(More)
Here we report successful interferometric coupling of two large telescopes with single-mode fibers. Interference fringes were obtained in the 2- to 2.3-micrometer wavelength range on the star 107 Herculis by using the two Keck 10-meter telescopes, each feeding their common interferometric focus with 300 meters of single-mode fibers. This experiment(More)
We present the first science results from the Keck Interferometer, a direct-detection infrared interferometer utilizing the two 10-meter Keck telescopes. The instrument and system components are briefly described. We then present observations of the T Tauri object DG Tau, which is resolved by the interferometer. The resolved component has a radius of 0.12(More)
Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) systems use the return from an artificial guide star to measure the wavefront aberrations in the direction of the science object. We observe quasi-static differences between the measured wavefront and the wavefront aberration of the science object. This paper quantifies and explains the source of the difference(More)
Application of the central limit theorem to the stochastic equation of propagation suggests that the probability distribution of the complex wave amplitude defined on the geometrical phase front is approximately normal. The resulting irradiance probability density function, valid in the strong scintillation regime, is an exponential multiplied by the(More)