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We report the in vitro selection of an RNA-based ATP aptamer with the ability to discriminate between adenosine ligands based on their 5' phosphorylation state. Previous selection of ATP aptamers yielded molecules that do not significantly discriminate between ligands at the 5' position. By applying a selective pressure that demands recognition of the 5'(More)
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), containing arginine (R), 6-aminohexanoic acid (X), and/or beta-alanine (B) conjugated to phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs), enhance their delivery in cell culture. In this study, the potency, functional biodistribution, and toxicity of these conjugates were evaluated in vivo, in EGFP-654 transgenic mice that(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a key mediator of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and anti-TNF-alpha drugs such as etanercept are effective treatments. Splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) are a new class of drugs designed to induce therapeutically favorable splice variants of targeted genes. In this work, we used(More)
Systemically injected 2'-O-methoxyethyl (2'-O-MOE)-phosphorothioate and PNA-4K oligomers (peptide nucleic acid with four lysines linked at the C terminus) exhibited sequence-specific antisense activity in a number of mouse organs. Morpholino oligomers were less effective, whereas PNA oligomers with only one lysine (PNA-1K) were completely inactive. The(More)
An estimated 60% of all human genes undergo alternative splicing, a highly regulated process that produces splice variants with different functions. Such variants have been linked to a variety of cancers, and genetic diseases such as thalassemia and cystic fibrosis. This Perspective describes a promising approach to RNA repair based on the use of antisense(More)
Locked nucleic acid (LNA) oligomers were found to be very effective in their ability to modulate alternative splicing in vivo in transgenic mice that ubiquitously express a modified EGFP pre-mRNA containing an aberrantly spliced beta-globin intron (IVS2-654). Following intraperitoneal injections, the splice-switching oligonucleotide LNA SSO-654 targeted to(More)
The antisense activity of oligomers with 2'-O-methyl (2'-O-Me) phosphorothioate, 2'-O-methoxyethyl (2'-O-MOE) phosphorothioate, morpholino and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) backbones was investigated using a splicing assay in which the modified oligonucleotides blocked aberrant and restored correct splicing of modified enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)(More)
To achieve effective modulation of gene expression by antisense oligonucleotides, novel oligonucleotide chemistries that do not promote RNase H degradation of target RNA are needed. In addition to short-term oligonucleotide effects, long-term gene regulation can be accomplished by intracellularly expressed antisense RNAs delivered by viral vectors.
Antisense technology has been used to study basic biological processes, and to block these processes when they deleteriously lead to human disease. A separate, equally important application of antisense technology is to upregulate the gene expression lost in the diseased state by shifting alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA. This strategy has commonly(More)
Polymeric nanogel vectors were developed for cellular gene and antisense delivery. Inverse microemulsion polymerization was utilized to synthesize biocompatible nanogels with controlled size, morphology, and composition. The chemical composition, size, polydispersity, stability, and swelling behavior of the nanogels were investigated by NMR, light(More)