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A key hallmark of many cancers, particularly the most aggressive, is the capacity to metabolize glucose at an elevated rate, a phenotype detected clinically using positron emission tomography (PET). This phenotype provides cancer cells, including those that participate in metastasis, a distinct competitive edge over normal cells. Specifically, after rapid(More)
The ability of a polypeptide to fold into a unique, functional, three-dimensional structure in vivo is dependent upon its amino acid sequence and the function of molecular chaperone proteins and enzymes that catalyse folding. Intense study of the physical chemistry and cell biology of folding have greatly aided our understanding of the mechanisms normally(More)
The terminal steps involved in making ATP in mitochondria require an ATP synthase (F(0)F(1)) comprised of two motors, a phosphate carrier (PIC), and an adenine nucleotide carrier (ANC). Under mild conditions, these entities sub-fractionate as an ATP synthase/PIC/ANC complex or "ATP synthasome" (Ko, Y.H., Delannoy, M, Hullihen, J., Chiu, W., and Pedersen,(More)
As a new faculty member at The Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, the author began research on cancer in 1969 because this frequently fatal disease touched many whom he knew. He was intrigued with its viscous nature, the failure of all who studied it to find a cure, and also fascinated by the pioneering work of Otto Warburg, a biochemical legend(More)
Despite more than 75 years of research by some of the greatest scientists in the world to conquer cancer, the clear winner is still cancer. This is reflected particularly by liver cancer that worldwide ranks fourth in terms of mortality with survival rates of no more than 3-5%. Significantly, one of the earliest discovered hallmarks of cancer had its roots(More)
We have investigated the subcellular localization of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor in rat adrenal gland using the high affinity ligand 3H-labeled 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide ([3H]PK11195). The autoradiographic pattern of [3H]PK11195 binding sites in tissue sections of adrenal gland is similar to the(More)
The rabbit VX2 tumor when implanted in the liver has proven convenient as a model for studying hepatocellular carcinomas. However, its metabolic properties have not been well studied. Significantly, studies described here show that the VX2 tumor exhibits a high glycolytic/high hexokinase phenotype that is retained following implantation and growth in rabbit(More)
A common feature of many advanced cancers is their enhanced capacity to metabolize glucose to lactic acid. In a challenging study designed to assess whether such cancers can be debilitated, we seeded hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing the highly glycolytic phenotype into two different locations of young rats. Advanced cancers (2-3cm) developed and(More)
ATP synthase, a double-motor enzyme, plays various roles in the cell, participating not only in ATP synthesis but in ATP hydrolysis-dependent processes and in the regulation of a proton gradient across some membrane-dependent systems. Recent studies of ATP synthase as a potential molecular target for the treatment of some human diseases have displayed(More)
One of the most common signatures of highly malignant tumors is their capacity to metabolize more glucose to lactic acid than their tissues of origin. Hepatomas exhibiting this phenotype are dependent on the high expression of type II hexokinase, which supplies such tumors with abundant amounts of glucose 6-phosphate, a significant carbon and energy source(More)