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A new obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium is described. The strain designated Tp8T 6331 is differentiated from thermophilic cellulolytic clostridia on the basis of physiological characteristics and phylogenetic position within the Bacillus/Clostridium subphylum of the Gram-positive bacteria. Strain Tp8T 6331 is assigned to a(More)
Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes (rDNA) were amplified by PCR from a hot pool environmental DNA sample using Bacteria- or Archaea-specific rDNA primers. Unique rDNA types were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and representative sequences were determined. Family 10 glycoside hydrolase consensus PCR primers were used to(More)
A PCR method suitable for the isolation of lipase genes directly from environmental DNA is described. The problems associated with the low levels of similarity between lipase genes were overcome by extensive analysis of conserved regions and careful primer design. Using this method, a lipase gene (oli-lipase) was isolated directly from environmental DNA.(More)
Two DNA polymerase genes have been isolated from Thermococcus strains, Thermococcus zilligii from New Zealand, and the other, Thermococcus 'GT', a fast-growing strain isolated from the Galapagos trench. Both genes were isolated by genomic walking PCR, a technique that does not require expression of the gene product. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA showed(More)
The complete sequence of a beta-mannanase gene from an anaerobic extreme thermophile was determined, and it shows that the expressed protein consists of two catalytic domains and two binding domains separated by spacer regions rich in proline and threonine residues. The amino-terminal catalytic domain has beta-mannanase activity, and the carboxy-terminal(More)
Characteristics that would make enzymes more desirable for industrial applications can be improved using directed evolution. We developed a directed evolution technique called random drift mutagenesis (RNDM). Mutant populations are screened and all functional mutants are collected and put forward into the next round of mutagenesis and screening. The goal of(More)
Paralana is an active, radon-containing hot spring situated in a region of South Australia's Flinders Ranges with a long history of hydrothermal activity. Our aim was to determine the bacterial composition of Paralana using a culture-independent, 16S rRNA-based technique. The presence of a diverse bacterial community was strongly suggested by the large(More)
Proteinase Ak.1 was produced during the stationary phase of Bacillus sp. Ak.1 cultures. It is a serine proteinase with a pI of 4.0, and the molecular mass was estimated to be 36.9 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was stable at 60 and 70 degrees C, with half-lives of 13 h and 19 min at 80 and 90 degrees(More)
AIMS To express a gene encoding a heterologous fungal xylanase in Trichoderma reesei. METHODS AND RESULTS Humicola grisea xylanase 2 (xyn2) cDNA was expressed in Trichoderma reesei under the main cellobiohydrolase I (cbh1) promoter (i) as a fusion to the cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) secretion signal and (ii) the mature CBHI core-linker. The recombinant(More)