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We have cloned a guinea pig Vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) from a dorsal root ganglion cDNA library and expressed it in CHO cells. The receptor has been functionally characterized by measuring changes in intracellular calcium produced by capsaicin, low pH and noxious heat. Capsaicin produced a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular calcium in guinea(More)
We investigated the coupling of the fMLP (N -formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine; 'chemotactic peptide') receptor with phosphorylation of the actin-binding protein L-plastin in neutrophils. Using two-dimensional IEF (isoelectric focusing)/PAGE and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight)-MS, L-plastin was identified as(More)
The biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is catalyzed by homodimeric NO synthases (NOS). For unknown reasons, all NOS co-purify with substoichiometric amounts of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)Bip) and require additional H(4)Bip for maximal activity. We examined the effects of H(4)Bip and pterin-derived inhibitors (anti-pterins) on purified neuronal(More)
Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS-III) is defined as being strictly dependent on Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM) for activity, although NO release from endothelial cells has been reported to also occur at intracellular free Ca(2+) levels that are substimulatory for the purified enzyme. We demonstrate here that NOS-III, but neither NOS-I nor -II, is rapidly and(More)
Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are homodimeric enzymes that NADPH-dependently convert L-arginine to nitric oxide and L-citrulline. Interestingly, all NOS also require (6R)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (H4Bip) for maximal activity although the mechanism is not fully understood. Basal NOS activity, i.e. that in the absence of exogenous H4Bip, has been(More)
Pathological nitric oxide (NO) generation in sepsis, inflammation, and stroke may be therapeutically controlled by inhibiting NO synthases (NOS). Here we targeted the (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin (H(4)Bip)-binding site of NOS, which, upon cofactor binding, maximally increases enzyme activity and NO production from substrate l-arginine. The first(More)
The family of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), an important cellular messenger molecule which has been implicated in the pathophysiology of septic shock and inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease states. NOS can be maximally activated by the ubiquitous cofactor,(More)
The underlying mechanisms regulating the activity of the family of homodimeric nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and, in particular, the requirement for (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (H(4)Bip) are not fully understood. Here we have investigated possible allosteric and stabilizing effects of H(4)Bip on neuronal NOS (NOS-I) during the conversion of(More)
The family of homodimeric nitric oxide synthases (NOS I-III) catalyzes the generation of the cellular messenger nitric oxide (NO) by oxidation of the substrate L-arginine. The rational design of specific NOS inhibitors is of therapeutic interest in regulating pathological NO levels associated with sepsis, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. The(More)
Myogenic constriction describes the innate ability of resistance arteries to constrict in response to elevations in intraluminal pressure and is a fundamental determinant of peripheral resistance and, hence, organ perfusion and systemic blood pressure. However, the receptor/cell-type that senses changes in pressure on the blood vessel wall and the pathway(More)