Peter Koopman

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Germ cells in the mouse embryo can develop as oocytes or spermatogonia, depending on molecular cues that have not been identified. We found that retinoic acid, produced by mesonephroi of both sexes, causes germ cells in the ovary to enter meiosis and initiate oogenesis. Meiosis is retarded in the fetal testis by the action of the retinoid-degrading enzyme(More)
A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is deleted in a line of XY female mice mutant for Tdy, and is expressed at a stage during male gonadal development consistent with its having a role in testis determination. This gene is a member of a new family of at least five mouse genes, related by an amino-acid motif showing(More)
The initiation of male development in mammals requires one or more genes on the Y chromosome. A recently isolated gene, termed SRY in humans and Sry in mouse, has many of the genetic and biological properties expected of a Y-located testis-determining gene. It is now shown that Sry on a 14-kilobase genomic DNA fragment is sufficient to induce testis(More)
Members of the SOX family of transcription factors are found throughout the animal kingdom, are characterized by the presence of a DNA-binding HMG domain, and are involved in a diverse range of developmental processes. Previous attempts to group SOX genes and deduce their structural, functional, and evolutionary relationships have relied largely on complete(More)
Two lines of evidence suggest that the Sry-related gene Sox9 is important for chondrogenesis in mammalian embryos. Sox9 mRNA is expressed in chondrogenic condensations in mice, and mutations in human SOX9 are known to cause skeletal dysplasia. We show here that mouse SOX9 protein is able to bind to a SOX/SRY consensus motif in DNA and contains a modular(More)
The development of a eutherian mammal as a male is a consequence of testis formation in the embryo, which is thought to be initiated by a gene on the Y chromosome. In the absence of this gene, ovaries are formed and female characteristics develop. Sex determination therefore hinges on the action of this testis-determining gene, known as Tdy in mice and TDF(More)
We know little about the genomic events that led to the advent of a multicellular grade of organization in animals, one of the most dramatic transitions in evolution. Metazoan multicellularity is correlated with the evolution of embryogenesis, which presumably was underpinned by a gene regulatory network reliant on the differential activation of signaling(More)
Mutations in the human SRY–related gene, SOX9, located on chromosome 17, have recently been associated with the sex reversal and skeletal dysmorphology syndrome, campomelic dysplasia. In order to clarify the role of this gene in skeletal development, we have studied the expression of mouse Sox9 during embryogenesis. Sox9 is expressed predominantly in(More)
Mutation analyses of patients with campomelic dysplasia, a bone dysmorphology and XY sex reversal syndrome, indicate that the SRY-related gene SOX9 is involved in both skeletal development and sex determination. To clarify the role SOX9 plays in vertebrate sex determination, we have investigated its expression during gonad development in mouse and chicken(More)
The lymphatic system plays a key role in tissue fluid regulation and tumour metastasis, and lymphatic defects underlie many pathological states including lymphoedema, lymphangiectasia, lymphangioma and lymphatic dysplasia. However, the origins of the lymphatic system in the embryo, and the mechanisms that direct growth of the network of lymphatic vessels,(More)