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We studied the effects of varying the fidelity and automation levels of a Ubicomp application prototype. Our results show that the interactive prototype captured the same usability issues that the paper prototype studies did and more. We found that paper prototyping is insufficient for supporting unique Ubicomp requirements, such as scalability, but a(More)
Three experiments examined the effects of interactive visualizations and spatial abilities on a task requiring participants to infer and draw cross sections of a three-dimensional (3D) object. The experiments manipulated whether participants could interactively control a virtual 3D visualization of the object while performing the task, and compared(More)
In two studies with a total of 324 participants, dentistry students were assessed on psychometric measures of spatial ability, reasoning ability, and on new measures of the ability to infer the appearance of a cross-section of a three-dimensional (3-D) object. We examined how these abilities and skills predict success in dental education programs, and(More)
How is shape represented during spatial tasks such as mental rotation? This research investigated the format of mental representations of 3-D shapes during mental rotation. Specifically, we tested the extent to which visual information, such as color, is represented during mental rotation using methods ranging from reaction time studies, verbal protocol(More)
The goal here was to determine whether computer interfaces are capable of social influence via humor. Users interacted with a natural language capable virtual agent that told persuasive information, and they were given the option to use information from the dialogue in order to complete a problem-solving task. Individuals interacting with an ostensibly(More)
A number of educational fields are introducing computer visualizations into their curricula, yet our understanding of the cognitive phenomena underlying learning from these materials is relatively limited. We examined how learners used an interactive 3D computer visualization to comprehend spatial relations in a virtual anatomy-like structure. Our goal was(More)
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that imagery ability and figural complexity interact to affect the choice of mental rotation strategies. Participants performed the <citationReference id="cr19-1" rid="c19">Shepard and Metzler (1971)</citationReference> mental rotation task. On half of the trials, the 3-D figures were manipulated to create "fragmented"(More)
There has been recent interest on the impact of emotional expressions of computers on people's decision making. However, despite a growing body of empirical work, the mechanism underlying such effects is still not clearly understood. To address this issue the paper explores two kinds of processes studied by emotion theorists in human–human interaction:(More)