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Molecules associated with the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily, such as bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and TGF-β, are key regulators of inflammation, apoptosis and cellular transitions. Here we show that the BMP receptor activin-like kinase 3 (Alk3) is elevated early in diseased kidneys after injury. We also found that its deletion in the(More)
The single-chain Fv (sFv) has proven attractive for immunotargeting, both alone and as a targeting element within sFv fusion proteins. This chapter summarizes the features of sFv proteins that have sparked this interest, starting with the conservation of Fv architecture that makes general sFv design practical. The length and composition of linkers used to(More)
Cytochrome b(5) is a microsomal protein that functions as an intermediate electron donor in fatty acid desaturation and other oxidation/reduction reactions. cDNA clones were isolated from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) by using oligonucleotides based on the partial amino acid sequence of the protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of the polypeptide(More)
Molecules associated with TGF-β superfamily such as BMPs and TGF-β are key regulators of inflammation, apoptosis and cellular transitions. Here, we demonstrate that the BMP receptor activin–like kinase 3 (Alk3) is elevated early in response to kidney injury and its deletion in the tubular epithelium leads to enhanced TGF-β1 / Smad3 signaling, epithelial(More)
810 VOLUME 19 | NUMBER 7 | JULY 2013 NATURE MEDICINE 11. Burton, P.S., Conradi, R.A., Ho, N.F., Hilgers, A.R. & Borchardt, R.T. J. Pharm. Sci. 85, 1336–1340 (1996). 12. Bellmann-Sickert, K. & Beck-Sickinger, A.G. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 31, 434–441 (2010). 13. Dewulf, N. et al. Endocrinology 136, 2652–2663 (1995). 6. Harrison, C.A. et al. Mol. Cell.(More)
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