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The evolution of Western medicine since World War II has resulted in the emergence of new practices based on the direct interaction of biology and medicine. The post-war realignment of biology and medicine has been accompanied by the emergence of a new type of objectivity, regulatory objectivity, that is based on the systematic recourse to the collective(More)
Clinical practice guidelines are now ubiquitous. This article describes the emergence of such guidelines in a way that differs from the two dominant explanations, one focusing on administrative cost-cutting and the other on the need to protect collective professional autonomy. Instead, this article argues that the spread of guidelines represents a new(More)
Recent work in the history and sociology of biomedicine has emphasized the novelty of the biomedical enterprise as a distinctive institutional, material, and epistemological configuration. Since World War II, biology and medicine have become such tightly intertwined research enterprises that those working in biomedicine cannot predict whether a particular(More)
Cancer research is one of the principal targets of translational research, yet the nature of the relationships between different forms of cancer research remains controversial. The paper examines publications in the cancer field during the 1980-2000 period. A network analysis software program was used to map evolving patterns of inter-citations between(More)
Clinical trials are the principal vector for the development of chemotherapy, and they have become such a pervasive element of clinical cancer research that modern oncologists tend to take them for granted. Yet the system of cancer clinical trials amounts to a relatively recent (post-World War II) innovation. Its development has proceeded through ad hoc(More)
The paper examines two large-scale, North American and European clinical trials designed to validate two commercially available genomic tumor signatures that predict a patient's risk of breast cancer recurrence and response to chemotherapy. The paper builds on empirical evidence from the two trials to explore the emergence of diverse regulatory-scientific(More)