Learn More
Electromyographic (EMG) potentials of several head muscles were recorded simultaneously in freely moving rats with chronically implanted electrodes. The startle responses of m. temporalis, m. levator auris, and m. levator labii superior were compared. All muscles showed a parallel decrease in latency and an increase in response elicitability and amplitude(More)
Electromyograms of M. Levator auris and M. Temporalis and movement produced by whole body startle were recorded simultaneously in awake, freely moving rats. Thresholds were 78 db SPL for the L. auris, 80 dB SPL for the ballistic and 81 dB SPL for the Temporalis. The rank ordering of the three thresholds was extremely strict, 188 suprathreshold M. L. auris(More)
The effect of the excitotoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist quinolinic acid in the caudal pontine reticular formation on the acoustic startle response was investigated in rats. Bilateral injections of 90 nmol of quinolinic acid led to large lesions in the reticular formation characterized by the loss of all neurons and a marked reduction or even abolition of(More)
BACKGROUND Short-term habituation of the startle response represents an elementary form of learning in mammals. The underlying mechanism is located within the primary startle pathway, presumably at sensory synapses on giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). Short trains of action potentials in sensory afferent fibers induce depression(More)
One current approach in investigating the neural basis of behavior is to use mutant mice with specific genetic alterations which affect neural functions. We are convinced that this approach is only effective if a behavioral model with sufficiently known underlying neuronal mechanisms is used. We present a model system which is well-suited for the above(More)
The acoustic startle response (ASR) is enhanced in the presence of loud background noise. We examined whether or not this increase of response strength is mediated by the amygdala, which is known to be involved in various phenomena of enhancement of the ASR. To achieve this aim, we tested whether or not amygdaloid lesions with the excitotoxin(More)
The spontaneous mutant mouse spasmodic (spd) carries a missense mutation affecting the glycine receptor alpha1-subunit gene. This results in a decreased binding affinity to glycine. Spd mutants show exaggerated acoustic startle responses (ASR). The present study sought to elucidate whether this increased ASR is due to a changed auditory processing or to(More)
To investigate the emotional reactions of two rat strains selectively bred for good and poor two-way avoidance acquisition (RHA/Verh and RLA/Verh), male animals of both strains were tested in an acoustic startle response test. They received 40 acoustic stimuli followed by 10 electric foot shocks and another 30 acoustic stimuli. RLA/Verh rats showed a(More)
Rats can be divided according to their responses to startle-eliciting stimuli into 2 groups with different emotional states. About half of the 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats showed long-lasting freezing behavior after 1-8 stimuli (10 kHz, 110 dB spl). In freezing rats the startle amplitude was higher than in nonfreezing rats, even on the very first startle(More)
The inbred mouse strain BALB has been proposed to be an animal model for pathological anxiety. BALB exhibits a stronger acoustic startle response (ASR) than the 'less emotional' inbred strain DBA. Four experiments were conducted to determine whether this strong ASR is due to a higher anxiety level and/or to greater sensitization in BALB than in DBA, with(More)