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Renal cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease arise from cells throughout the nephron, but there is an uncertainty as to whether both the intercalated cells (ICs) and principal cells (PCs) within the collecting duct give rise to cysts. To determine this, we crossed mice containing loxP sites within introns 1 and 4 of the Pkd1 gene with(More)
BACKGROUND Cytolytic Shiga toxins (Stx) are believed to be largely responsible for renal damage in post-diarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (D + HUS). Despite the general belief that endothelial cells are the primary target of Stx, there is evidence that proximal tubules may be a site of toxin action. We hypothesized that cultured proximal tubular cells are(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Inflammatory cytokines may enhance renal injury in post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome (Stx HUS) by enhancing the cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxins (Stx). The sources of inflammatory cytokines in Stx HUS are unclear. Since Stx-1 potently inhibits protein synthesis by glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) and increases cytokine release by(More)
Mortality in postdiarrheal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is associated with brain injury. Normally, brain cells are resistant to Shiga toxin (Stx), the putative pathogenic toxin in HUS. However, exposure of human brain endothelial cells (HBECs) to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and/or interleukin (IL)-1 markedly up-regulates Stx receptor(More)
A transgenic mouse approach was used to examine the mechanism of principal cell-specific expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) within the renal collecting duct. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry revealed that murine AQP2 was expressed in principal cells in the renal collecting duct, epithelial cells of the vas deferens, and seminiferous tubules within testis. The(More)
Collecting duct-derived endothelin-1 (ET-1) reduces blood pressure and inhibits Na and water reabsorption. Collecting duct ET-1 production is increased by volume expansion; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We hypothesized that intracellular calcium, which is likely to be increased by volume expansion, regulates collecting duct ET-1(More)
Collecting duct (CD)-specific knockout (KO) of endothelin-1 (ET-1) causes hypertension, impaired ability to excrete a Na load, and enhanced CD sensitivity to the hydrosmotic effects of vasopressin (AVP). CD express the two known ET receptors, ET(A) and ET(B); in the current study, the role of the CD ET(A) receptor in mediating ET-1 actions on this nephron(More)
Collecting duct (CD)-derived endothelin-1 (ET-1) exerts natriuretic, diuretic, and hypotensive effects. In vitro studies have implicated cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites, and particularly PGE(2), as important mediators of CD ET-1 effects. However, it is unknown whether PGE(2) mediates CD-derived ET-1 actions in vivo. To test this, CD ET-1 knockout (KO) and(More)
Little is known about collecting duct adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms or regulation in the mouse. We performed RT-PCR for AC isoforms 1-9 in microdissected cortical (CCD) and outer medullary (OMCD) and acutely isolated inner medullary (IMCD) collecting duct. All collecting duct regions contained AC3, AC4, and AC6 mRNA, while CCD and OMCD, but not IMCD, also(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Cystic epithelia in polycystic kidney disease display features similar to malignant cells. Thiazolidinediones have been shown to have anti-neoplastic properties, therefore we tested the hypothesis that pioglitazone reduces cyst formation, improves renal function, and prolongs survival in a mouse model of polycystic kidney disease. METHODS(More)