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The complex series of movements that mediates chromosome segregation during mitosis is dependent on the attachment of microtubules to kinetochores, DNA-protein complexes that assemble on centromeric DNA. We describe the use of live-cell imaging and chromatin immunoprecipitation in S. cerevisiae to identify ten kinetochore subunits, among which are yeast(More)
Accurate chromosome segregation relies on the precise regulation of mitotic progression. Regulation involves control over the timing of mitosis and a spindle assembly checkpoint that links anaphase onset to the completion of chromosome-microtubule attachment. In this paper, we combine live-cell imaging of HeLa cells and protein depletion by RNA interference(More)
In microorganisms, noise in gene expression gives rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein concentrations. In mammalian cells, protein levels also vary and individual cells differ widely in their responsiveness to uniform physiological stimuli. In the case of apoptosis mediated by TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) it(More)
The spindle checkpoint prevents chromosome mis-segregation by delaying sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes have achieved bipolar attachment to the mitotic spindle. Its operation is essential for accurate chromosome segregation, whereas its dysregulation can contribute to birth defects and tumorigenesis. The target of the spindle checkpoint is(More)
In this paper, we describe an algorithmic framework for the automatic detection of diffraction-limited fluorescent spots in 3D optical images at a separation below the Rayleigh limit, i.e. with super-resolution. We demonstrate the potential of super-resolution detection by tracking fluorescently tagged chromosomes during mitosis in budding yeast. Our(More)
The initiation of chromosome segregation at anaphase is linked by the spindle assembly checkpoint to the completion of chromosome-microtubule attachment during metaphase. To determine the function of the mitotic checkpoint protein Mad2 during normal cell division and when mitosis goes awry, we have knocked out Mad2 in mice. We find that E5.5 embryonic cells(More)
Accurate chromosome segregation depends on precise regulation of mitosis by the spindle checkpoint. This checkpoint monitors the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachment and delays the metaphase to anaphase transition until all kinetochores have formed stable bipolar connections to the mitotic spindle. Components of the spindle checkpoint include the(More)
Kinetochores are large multi-protein structures that assemble on centromeric DNA (CEN DNA) and mediate the binding of chromosomes to microtubules. Comprising 125 base-pairs of CEN DNA and 70 or more protein components, Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochores are among the best understood. In contrast, most fungal, plant and animal cells assemble kinetochores(More)
The accurate segregation of chromosomes at mitosis requires that all pairs of chromatids bind correctly to microtubules prior to the dissolution of sister cohesion and the initiation of anaphase. By analyzing the motion of GFP-tagged S. cerevisiae chromosomes, we show that kinetochore-microtubule attachments impose sufficient tension on sisters during(More)
The spindle checkpoint ensures faithful chromosome segregation by linking the onset of anaphase to the establishment of bipolar kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The checkpoint is mediated by a signal transduction system comprised of conserved Mad, Bub and other proteins. In this study, we use live-cell imaging coupled with RNA interference to investigate(More)