Learn More
We report on the pathological findings in the brains of 8 Parkinson's disease patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (6 cases) and subthalamic nucleus (2 cases). DBS was performed continuously for up to 70 months. All brains showed well-preserved neural parenchyma and only mild gliosis around the lead(More)
Synchronized video and high-frequency audio recordings of two trained harbour porpoises searching for and capturing live fish were used to study swimming and echolocation behaviour. One animal repeated the tasks blindfolded. A splash generated by the fish being thrown into the pool or - in controls - by a boat hook indicated prey and stimulated search(More)
Electromyographic (EMG) potentials of several head muscles were recorded simultaneously in freely moving rats with chronically implanted electrodes. The startle responses of m. temporalis, m. levator auris, and m. levator labii superior were compared. All muscles showed a parallel decrease in latency and an increase in response elicitability and amplitude(More)
Electromyograms of M. Levator auris and M. Temporalis and movement produced by whole body startle were recorded simultaneously in awake, freely moving rats. Thresholds were 78 db SPL for the L. auris, 80 dB SPL for the ballistic and 81 dB SPL for the Temporalis. The rank ordering of the three thresholds was extremely strict, 188 suprathreshold M. L. auris(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are known to play a role in synaptic plasticity and learning. We have previously shown that mGluR7 deletion in mice produces a selective working memory (WM) impairment, while other types of memory such as reference memory remain unaffected. Since WM has been associated with Theta activity (6-12 Hz) in EEGs, and(More)
The effect of the excitotoxic N-methyl-D-aspartate agonist quinolinic acid in the caudal pontine reticular formation on the acoustic startle response was investigated in rats. Bilateral injections of 90 nmol of quinolinic acid led to large lesions in the reticular formation characterized by the loss of all neurons and a marked reduction or even abolition of(More)
The influence of prepulses on the acoustic startle response (ASR) was measured in three inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J, 129/SvHsd, and AKR/OlaHsd, and one hybrid strain produced by crossing wild mice and NMRI mice. Prepulse inhibition (PPI), i.e. reduction of ASR by prepulses, was maximal when the interval between prepulses and startle stimuli was in the(More)
BACKGROUND Short-term habituation of the startle response represents an elementary form of learning in mammals. The underlying mechanism is located within the primary startle pathway, presumably at sensory synapses on giant neurons in the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). Short trains of action potentials in sensory afferent fibers induce depression(More)
One current approach in investigating the neural basis of behavior is to use mutant mice with specific genetic alterations which affect neural functions. We are convinced that this approach is only effective if a behavioral model with sufficiently known underlying neuronal mechanisms is used. We present a model system which is well-suited for the above(More)
To test whether habituation is specific to the stimulus modality, the authors analyzed cross-habituation between the tactile startle response' (TSR) and the acoustic startle response (ASR). The acoustic artifacts of airpuffs used to elicit the TSR were reduced by using a silencer and were effectively masked by background noise of 90-100 dB sound-pressure(More)