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A minor population of cone photoreceptors (called B-cones) can be distinguished from the major population (called R-cones) on morphological criteria as seen by light microscopy in foveal and peripheral human retina. The B-cones are characterized by a longer inner segment projecting into subretinal space, a larger-diameter inner segment, an increased(More)
Unlike in birds and cold-blooded vertebrates' retinas, the photoreceptors of mammalian retinas were long supposed to be morphologically uniform and difficult to distinguish into subtypes. A number of new techniques have now begun to overcome the previous limitations. A hitherto unexpected variability of spectral and morphological subtypes and topographic(More)
Noncontact, depth-resolved, optical probing of retinal response to visual stimulation with a <10-microm spatial resolution, achieved by using functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (fUHROCT), is demonstrated in isolated rabbit retinas. The method takes advantage of the fact that physiological changes in dark-adapted retinas caused by(More)
Cone photoreceptor pedicles from midperipheral regions of the human retina (6 mm from the foveal center) have been studied by light and electron microscopy. Three areas of cone pedicle mosaic were serially thin-sectioned, in the tangential plane, from the inner border of the outer plexiform layer to the emergence of the cone axons from the cone pedicles.(More)
Connections of the three human horizontal cell (HC) types with overlying cone pedicles have been studied via electron microscopy (EM). Because blue cones (B-cones) can be recognized on distinctive morphological criteria, we could determine their presence by light microscopy (LM) in the mosaic overlying HC dendritic trees. Then we could confirm the presence(More)
Light microscopic and histochemical studies reveal that the retina of the European ground squirrel (Citellus citellus L.) contains a mosaic pattern of two cone types and a small population of rods. A minority (7%) of the cones can be characterized by their ellipsoids having larger diameters and increased staining density over the majority population.(More)
The quality of the foveal cone mosaic in human and primate retinas is a basic parameter of spatial vision function. The present study uses digital-texture analysis procedures to analyze the crystalline order of inner segment sections containing the rod-free portions of foveal cone mosaics. Definition of the cone cross-sectional centers made possible by(More)
The relationship of primate horizontal cells (HC) to cone pedicles was assessed by superimposing the cone inner segment mosaic upon Golgi-impregnated HC dendritic terminal clusters in a light microscope (LM) study. The HI, HII, and HIII types of HC were identified, hand-drawn, photographed, and analyzed by computer graphics methods. Blue cone (B-cones)(More)
Golgi-impregnated horizontal cells (HCs) as viewed in whole mount human retinas have been studied by light microscopic (LM) techniques. Impregnated HCs have been drawn by camera lucida and by the Eutectics neuron tracing method to provide quantitative data on dendritic tree sizes, dendritic tree shapes, and dendritic terminals for statistical treatment and(More)