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Photoprotection of photosystem II (PSII) is essential to avoid the light-induced damage of the photosynthetic apparatus due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (=photo-oxidative stress) under excess light. Carotenoids are known to play a crucial role in these processes based on their property to deactivate triplet chlorophyll (³Chl*) and singlet(More)
Illumination changes elicit modifications of thylakoid proteins and reorganization of the photosynthetic machinery. This involves, in the short term, phosphorylation of photosystem II (PSII) and light-harvesting (LHCII) proteins. PSII phosphorylation is thought to be relevant for PSII turnover, whereas LHCII phosphorylation is associated with the relocation(More)
The induction and relaxation of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under steady-state conditions, i.e. during up to 90min of illumination at saturating light intensities, was studied in Arabidopsis thaliana. Besides the well-characterized fast qE and the very slow qI component of NPQ, the analysis of the NPQ dynamics identified a zeaxanthin (Zx) dependent(More)
The mutants irt1-1 and irt1-2 of Arabidopsis thaliana were identified among a collection of T-DNA-tagged lines on the basis of a decrease in the effective quantum yield of photosystem II. The mutations responsible interfere with expression of IRT1, a nuclear gene that encodes the metal ion transporter IRT1. In irt1 mutants, photosensitivity and chlorophyll(More)
The prpl11-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was identified among a collection of T-DNA tagged lines on the basis of a decrease in the effective quantum yield of photosystem II. The mutation responsible was localized to Prpl11, a single-copy nuclear gene that encodes PRPL11, a component of the large subunit of the plastid ribosome. The amino acid sequence of(More)
The violaxanthin cycle describes the reversible conversion of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin via the intermediate antheraxanthin. This light-dependent xanthophyll conversion is essential for the adaptation of plants and algae to different light conditions and allows a reversible switch of photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes between a light-harvesting(More)
Application of norflurazon (NF) damages plastids, induces photobleaching and represses expression of the nuclear LHCB1.2 gene encoding a light-harvesting protein. In genomes uncoupled (gun) mutants, LHCB1.2 expression is maintained in the presence of NF. The mutants gun2, gun4 and gun5 exhibit perturbations in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, but gun1 is(More)
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the D-subunit of photosystem I (PSI-D) is encoded by two functional genes, PsaD1 and PsaD2, which are highly homologous. Knock-out alleles for each of the loci have been identified by a combination of forward and reverse genetics. The double mutant psad1-1 psad2-1 is seedling-lethal, high-chlorophyll-fluorescent and deficient for(More)
Light-induced lumenal acidification controls the efficiency of light harvesting by inducing thermal dissipation of excess absorbed light energy in photosystem II. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant, pgr1 (proton gradient regulation), entirely lacking thermal dissipation, which was observed as little non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence.(More)
A lack of individual plastid ribosomal proteins (PRPs) can have diverse phenotypic effects in Arabidopsis thaliana, ranging from embryo lethality to compromised vitality, with the latter being associated with photosynthetic lesions and decreases in the expression of plastid proteins. In this study, reverse genetics was employed to study the function of(More)