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Trout lens external shape and internal refractive index gradient structure were measured and used to construct an optical lens model that predicts by ray tracing the average longitudinal spherical and chromatic aberration, focal length and image quality. The nearly spherical shape of the lens was measured from photographs, and the internal refractive(More)
The development of the barrels and layers II-V was examined in Nissl-stained preparations of the primary somatosensory cortex in six species--hamster, mouse, rat, gerbil, rabbit, and guinea pig--that have increasingly longer gestation periods. The barrels and layers II-V begin to differentiate postnatally during the first week postpartum in the hamster,(More)
The paths of 15 micron diameter laser beams traversing goldfish eye lenses were photographed. Measurements of these photographs gave experimental data for the distance of the exit point of each ray from the lens axis as a function of the corresponding entrance distance. A number of mathematical models with distinct distributions of refractive index within(More)
Cephalopods and fish have had no common ancestor since the Cambrian, and their eyes are a classic example of convergent evolution. The octopus has no cornea, and immerson renders the trout cornea optically ineffective. As a result, the nearly spherical lens is responsible for all refraction in these eyes. In spite of the fact that the octopus lens consists(More)
OBJECTIVE A novel resin composite system, Filtek Silorane (3M ESPE) with reduced polymerization shrinkage has recently been introduced. The resin contains an oxygen-containing ring molecule ('oxirane') and cures via a cationic ring-opening reaction rather than a linear chain reaction associated with conventional methacrylates and results in a volumetric(More)
Early weed control may improve the growth of forest plantations by influencing soil water and nutrient availability. To understand eucalypt growth responses to weed control, we examined the temporal responses of leaf gas-exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration (N) and water status of 7-month-old Eucalyptus globulus L. trees in a paired-plot field trial. In(More)
Increases in photosynthetic capacity (A1500) after defoliation have been attributed to changes in leaf-level biochemistry, water, and/or nutrient status. The hypothesis that transient photosynthetic responses to partial defoliation are regulated by whole-plant (e.g. source-sink relationships or changes in hydraulic conductance) rather than leaf-level(More)
UNLABELLED Polymerization contraction, and the stresses associated with this, have presented problems with resin composite materials, particularly when used to restore cavities in posterior teeth. This paper summarizes the problems associated with polymerization contraction and examines methods used to overcome this, in particular, by the use of materials(More)