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Trout lens external shape and internal refractive index gradient structure were measured and used to construct an optical lens model that predicts by ray tracing the average longitudinal spherical and chromatic aberration, focal length and image quality. The nearly spherical shape of the lens was measured from photographs, and the internal refractive(More)
The paths of 15 micron diameter laser beams traversing goldfish eye lenses were photographed. Measurements of these photographs gave experimental data for the distance of the exit point of each ray from the lens axis as a function of the corresponding entrance distance. A number of mathematical models with distinct distributions of refractive index within(More)
Cephalopods and fish have had no common ancestor since the Cambrian, and their eyes are a classic example of convergent evolution. The octopus has no cornea, and immerson renders the trout cornea optically ineffective. As a result, the nearly spherical lens is responsible for all refraction in these eyes. In spite of the fact that the octopus lens consists(More)
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