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For patients with hippocampal pathology, disagreement exists in the literature over whether retrograde amnesia is temporally limited or very extensive depending on whether the anatomical damage is restricted to this structure or also involves additional temporal cortex. We report a comprehensive assessment of retrograde and anterograde memory functions of a(More)
Clinical and MRI investigations were carried out on 27 patients with acquired pendular nystagmus in an attempt to delineate possible sites of lesions responsible for pendular nystagmus and mechanisms underlying the frequent ocular disconjugacy of this nystagmus. The aetiologies were multiple sclerosis (n = 21), brainstem stroke (n = 3) and other(More)
A definitive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis cannot be made at presentation on patients with a clinically isolated syndrome of the optic nerve, spinal cord or brainstem suggestive of demyelination, as dissemination in time is not established. To determine the long-term risk of abnormalities on brain MRI for the development of multiple sclerosis and(More)
From an extensive serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in multiple sclerosis (MS) we have identified 4 cases in which disruption of the blood-brain barrier, as detected by gadolinium-DTPA enhancement, preceded other MRI abnormalities and in 1 case clinical evidence of the new lesion. This supports the view that a defect in the blood-brain barrier,(More)
Serial gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 9 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). On the first scan enhancing lesions were seen in 7 patients, all of whom were in acute relapse. Most enhancing lesions were asymptomatic. On the second scan (3 to 5 weeks later), persisting enhancement was seen in only 12/54(More)
A patient is reported in whom a classic amnesic syndrome developed as a result of repeated episodes of cerebral ischaemia, accompanied by seizures. The amnesia was very severe for both old and newly acquired memories and the critical lesions defined by MRI were circumscribed areas confined to CA1 and CA2 fields of both hippocampi.
The neuropsychological abnormalities found in 9 patients with tumours involving the splenium of the corpus callosum are described. The outstanding features of their cognitive deficits were a severe memory deficit and visual perception impairment in the presence of relatively intact intellect. It is argued that (1) the amnesia is due to damage to the fornix(More)
BACKGROUND An intravenous rather than oral course of methylprednisolone is often prescribed for treating acute relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) despite the lack of evidence to support this route of administration. Our double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial was designed to compare the efficacy of commonly used intravenous and oral steroid(More)
We performed semiautomated quantitative measurement of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities seen at presentation and at 5-year follow-up in 84 patients presenting with an acute clinically isolated syndrome of the optic nerves, brainstem, or spinal cord suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). At follow-up, 34 (40%) had developed clinically(More)