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For patients with hippocampal pathology, disagreement exists in the literature over whether retrograde amnesia is temporally limited or very extensive depending on whether the anatomical damage is restricted to this structure or also involves additional temporal cortex. We report a comprehensive assessment of retrograde and anterograde memory functions of a(More)
In the amnesia literature, disagreement exists over whether anterograde amnesia involves recollective-based recognition processes and/or familiarity-based ones depending on whether the anatomical damage is restricted to the hippocampus or also involves adjacent areas, particularly the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. So far, few patients with well(More)
Clinical and MRI investigations were carried out on 27 patients with acquired pendular nystagmus in an attempt to delineate possible sites of lesions responsible for pendular nystagmus and mechanisms underlying the frequent ocular disconjugacy of this nystagmus. The aetiologies were multiple sclerosis (n = 21), brainstem stroke (n = 3) and other(More)
OBJECTIVES To clarify the clinical significance of positional down beat nystagmus (pDBN). METHODS A discussion of the neuro-otological findings in 50 consecutive patients with pDBN. RESULTS In 38 patients there was evidence of CNS disease (central group) but in 12 there was not (idiopathic group). In the CNS group, presenting symptoms were gait, speech,(More)
OBJECTIVES Human prion diseases are heterogeneous but invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders with no known effective therapy. PRION-1, the largest clinical trial in prion disease to date, showed no effect of the potential therapeutic quinacrine on survival. Although there are several limitations to the usefulness of survival as an outcome measure,(More)
From an extensive serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in multiple sclerosis (MS) we have identified 4 cases in which disruption of the blood-brain barrier, as detected by gadolinium-DTPA enhancement, preceded other MRI abnormalities and in 1 case clinical evidence of the new lesion. This supports the view that a defect in the blood-brain barrier,(More)
A definitive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis cannot be made at presentation on patients with a clinically isolated syndrome of the optic nerve, spinal cord or brainstem suggestive of demyelination, as dissemination in time is not established. To determine the long-term risk of abnormalities on brain MRI for the development of multiple sclerosis and(More)
BACKGROUND An intravenous rather than oral course of methylprednisolone is often prescribed for treating acute relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) despite the lack of evidence to support this route of administration. Our double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial was designed to compare the efficacy of commonly used intravenous and oral steroid(More)
A patient is reported in whom a classic amnesic syndrome developed as a result of repeated episodes of cerebral ischaemia, accompanied by seizures. The amnesia was very severe for both old and newly acquired memories and the critical lesions defined by MRI were circumscribed areas confined to CA1 and CA2 fields of both hippocampi.