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The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. It is currently believed that four to six crypt stem cells reside at the +4 position immediately above the Paneth cells in the small intestine; colon stem cells remain undefined. Lgr5 (leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5, also known as Gpr49) was(More)
The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We have recently demonstrated the presence of about six cycling Lgr5(+) stem cells at the bottoms of small-intestinal crypts. Here we describe the establishment of long-term culture conditions under which single crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, while(More)
Traffic of MHC molecules dictates the source of peptides that are presented to T cells. The intracellular distribution of MHC class I and class II molecules reflects the dichotomy in presentation of antigen from endogenous and exogenous origin, respectively. In human B lymphoblastoid cells, class I molecules are present in compartments constituting the(More)
The LKB1 gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that is mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers cancer syndrome. LKB1 is homologous to the Par-4 polarity genes in C. elegans and D. melanogaster. We have previously reported the identification and characterization of an LKB1-specific adaptor protein, STRAD, which activates LKB1 and translocates it from nucleus to(More)
Mgm1 is a member of the dynamin family of GTP-binding proteins. Mgm1 was first identified in yeast, where it affects mitochondrial morphology. The human homologue of Mgm1 is called OPA1. Mutations in the OPA1 gene are the prevailing cause of dominant optic atrophy, a hereditary disease in which progressive degeneration of the optic nerve can lead to(More)
The ARF GTP binding proteins are believed to function as regulators of membrane traffic in the secretory pathway. While the ARF1 protein has been shown in vitro to mediate the membrane interaction of the cytosolic coat proteins coatomer (COP1) and gamma-adaptin with the Golgi complex, the functions of the other ARF proteins have not been defined. Here, we(More)
Protein localization to the TGN was investigated by examining the subcellular distribution of chimeric proteins in which the cytoplasmic and/or transmembrane domains of the TGN protein, TGN38, were substituted for the analogous domains of the plasma membrane protein, Tac. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, the COOH-terminal cytoplasmic(More)
The study of gastric epithelial homeostasis and cancer has been hampered by the lack of stem cell markers and in vitro culture methods. The Wnt target gene Lgr5 marks stem cells in the small intestine, colon, and hair follicle. Here, we investigated Lgr5 expression in the stomach and assessed the stem cell potential of the Lgr5(+ve) cells by using in vivo(More)
The effect of fenamates on gap junctional intercellular communication was investigated in monolayers of normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts and of SKHep1 cells overexpressing the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43). Using two different methods to study gap junctional intercellular communication, single electrode voltage-clamp step response measurements(More)
We have identified a human cDNA encoding a novel protein, exchange factor for ARF6 (EFA6), which contains Sec7 and pleckstrin homology domains. EFA6 promotes efficient guanine nucleotide exchange on ARF6 and is distinct from the ARNO family of ARF1 exchange factors. The protein localizes to a dense matrix on the cytoplasmic face of plasma membrane(More)