Peter J. O’Brien

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OBJECTIVE Reductions in insulin sensitivity in conjunction with muscle mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported to occur in many conditions including aging. The objective was to determine whether insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction are directly related to chronological age or are related to age-related changes in body composition. (More)
The fast-paced development of nanotechnology needs the support of effective safety testing. We have developed a screening platform measuring simultaneously several cellular parameters for exposure to various concentrations of nanoparticles (NPs). Cell lines representative of different organ cell types, including lung, endothelium, liver, kidney,(More)
The complexity and multiscale nature of the mammalian immune response provides an excellent test bed for the potential of mathematical modeling and simulation to facilitate mechanistic understanding. Historically, mathematical models of the immune response focused on subsets of the immune system and/or specific aspects of the response. Mathematical models(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) plays an important role in cancer, but accurate measurement of circulating TGFbeta is complicated by the high TGFbeta content of platelets which can release TGFbeta ex vivo. We evaluated the use of citrate-theophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole (CTAD) tubes to reduce preanalytical variation in TGFbeta measurements(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent meta-analyses have suggested similar wound infection rates when using single- or multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in the operative management of closed long bone fractures. In order to assist clinicians in choosing the optimal prophylaxis strategy, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing single- and(More)
Azathioprine (AZA) is widely used in clinical practice for preventing graft rejection in organ transplantations and various autoimmune and dermatological diseases with documented unpredictable hepatotoxicity. The potential molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of AZA towards isolated rat hepatocytes were investigated in this study using "Accelerated Cytotoxicity(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring entities with potential as pharmaceutical candidates and/or food additives. They are present in many organisms including bacteria, insects, fish and mammals. While their antimicrobial activity is equipotent with many commercial antibiotics, current limitations are poor pharmacokinetics, stability and(More)
Flutamide (FLU) is a competitive antagonist of the androgen receptor which has been reported to induce severe liver injury in some patients. Several experimental models suggested that an episode of inflammation during drug treatment predisposes animals to tissue injury. The molecular cytotoxic mechanisms of FLU in isolated rat hepatocytes using an in vitro(More)