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A commonly used strategy by microorganisms to survive multiple stresses involves a signal transduction cascade that increases the expression of stress-responsive genes. Stress signals can be integrated by a multiprotein signaling hub that responds to various signals to effect a single outcome. We obtained a medium-resolution cryo-electron microscopy(More)
Everettian accounts of quantum mechanics entail that people branch; every possible result of a measurement actually occurs, and I have one successor for each result. Is there room for probability in such an account? The prima facie answer is no; there are no ontic chances here, and no ignorance about what will happen. But since any adequate quantum(More)
BACKGROUND Fluorescent proteins are powerful molecular biology tools that have been used to study the subcellular dynamics of proteins within live cells for well over a decade. Two fluorescent proteins commonly used to enable dual protein labelling are GFP (green) and mCherry (red). Sporulation in the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis has been(More)
Pausing during transcription elongation is a fundamental activity in all kingdoms of life. In bacteria, the essential protein NusA modulates transcriptional pausing, but its mechanism of action has remained enigmatic. By combining structural and functional studies we show that a helical rearrangement induced in NusA upon interaction with RNA polymerase is(More)
In Bacillus subtilis, RNA polymerase becomes concentrated into regions of the nucleoid called transcription foci. With green fluorescent protein-tagged RNA polymerase, these structures are only observed at higher growth rates and have been shown to represent the sites of rRNA synthesis. There are 10 rRNA (rrn) operons distributed around nearly half of the(More)
Members of the genus Acinetobacter have been the focus recent attention due to both their clinical significance and application to molecular biology. The soil commensal bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has been proposed as a model system for molecular and genetic studies, whereas in a clinical environment, Acinetobacter spp. are of increasing importance(More)
Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is an essential multisubunit protein complex required for gene expression. Here, we characterize YvgS (HelD) from Bacillus subtilis, a novel binding partner of RNAP. We show that HelD interacts with RNAP-core between the secondary channel of RNAP and the alpha subunits. Importantly, we demonstrate that HelD stimulates(More)