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Bacteria adapt to environmental stimuli by adjusting their transcriptomes in a complex manner, the full potential of which has yet to be established for any individual bacterial species. Here, we report the transcriptomes of Bacillus subtilis exposed to a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions that the organism might encounter in nature. We(More)
During vegetative growth, rod-shaped bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis divide precisely at midcell. It is the Z ring that defines the position of the division site. We previously demonstrated that the early stages of chromosome replication are linked to midcell Z ring assembly in B. subtilis and proposed a direct role for the(More)
Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical and model-based data analyses of dynamic transcript, protein, and(More)
The earliest event in bacterial cell division is the assembly of a tubulin-like protein, FtsZ, at mid-cell to form a ring. In rod-shaped bacteria, the Min system plays an important role in division site placement by inhibiting FtsZ ring formation specifically at the polar regions of the cell. The Min system comprises MinD and MinC, which form an inhibitor(More)
Plasmid pBaSysBioII was constructed for high-throughput analysis of gene expression in Bacillus subtilis. It is an integrative plasmid with a ligation-independent cloning (LIC) site, allowing the generation of transcriptional gfpmut3 fusions with desired promoters. Integration is by a Campbell-type event and is non-mutagenic, placing the fusion at the(More)
A commonly used strategy by microorganisms to survive multiple stresses involves a signal transduction cascade that increases the expression of stress-responsive genes. Stress signals can be integrated by a multiprotein signaling hub that responds to various signals to effect a single outcome. We obtained a medium-resolution cryo-electron microscopy(More)
Traditional textbook representations of the prokaryotic cytoplasm show an amorphous, unstructured amalgamation of proteins and small molecules in which a randomly arranged chromosome resides. The development and application of a swathe of microscopic techniques over the last 10 years in particular, has shown this image of the microbial cell to be incorrect:(More)
Antibiotic resistance is a growing global problem, with very few new compounds in development. Bacterial transcription is an underutilized target for antibiotics, which has been attributed to the similarity of the active site of RNA polymerases (RNAPs) across all domains of life and the ease with which resistance can arise through point mutation at multiple(More)
Bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAPs) contain several small auxiliary subunits known to co-purify with the core α, β and β' subunits. The ω subunit is conserved between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while the δ subunit is conserved within, but restricted to, Gram-positive bacteria. Although various functions have been assigned to these subunits via(More)