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Cloning and characterization of a Choristoneura fumiferana ultraspiracle (Cfusp) cDNA are described. First, a PCR fragment and then a cDNA clone (4.4 kb) were isolated from spruce budworm cDNA libraries. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA with the sequences in Genbank showed that this sequence had high homology with the ultraspiracle(More)
The ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene isolated from a plaque-purified isolate of Choristoneura fumiferana multinucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (CfMNPV) was compared to its homologue from a defective MNPV virus (CfDEF) present in wild type virus populations infecting the eastern spruce budworm, C. fumiferana. The egt genes were located(More)
Viruses are described from several genera of ichneumonid parasitoids. New morphologic categories have been observed, one of which is similar to typical baculoviruses. Calyx particles from several species were found to contain polydisperse DNA's. An electrophoretic method for screening individual field-collected wasps for the presence of such DNA's is(More)
The xynC gene of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 codes for a 66.4-kDa xylanase which consists of three distinct domains separated by two flexible regions rich in serine residues. Domains A and B of XynC code for catalytic domains with 56.5% identity and 9.6% similarity with each other, and both domains share homology with xylanases of Ruminococcus(More)
Induction of type I interferon (IFN-α/β) is an early antiviral response of the host, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to downregulate the IFN response during infection in cells and pigs. We report that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 1α (Nsp1α) subunit of Nsp1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein distributed to(More)
Two distinct nucleopolyhedrovirus species of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, exist in a symbiont-like relationship. C. fumiferana defective nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfDEFNPV) only infects C. fumiferana larvae per os in the presence of C. fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus Ireland strain (CfMNPV), but is infective when injected into the(More)
Four genotypes named SP2A, SP2B, SP2C and SP2D were obtained in vivo by infecting S. exigua larvae with limiting dilutions of the Spanish field isolate Spodoptera exigua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (Se-SP2) of SeMNPV. The cloning of variants SP2A, SP2B and SP2C took 1, 6, and 3 passages, respectively, before the DNA profiles showed all bands in equimolar(More)
Chitinase (CfChitinase) cDNA from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, was cloned using reverse transcription PCR and cDNA library screening. The CfChitinase cDNA was determined to be 2856 nucleotides long with the longest open reading frame made up of 1671 nucleotides that encoded a protein that was 557 amino acid long with a predicted molecular(More)
Previous reports have indicated that p34.8 (gp37) may be essential for the replication of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) because no virus with inactivated p34.8 was isolated. We have ascertained the requirement for this gene by attempting to inactivate it with a large insertion [the gene encoding GFP (green fluorescent protein)] or by(More)
We previously reported on the generation of approximately 50-kb size defective genomes (DGs) which appeared to retain less than 2.2% of the standard Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) DNA between 85.0 and 87.2 MU while the rest of the virus DNA had been largely deleted (Lee and Krell, J. Virol., 66:4339-4347, 1992). To investigate(More)