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OBJECT Delayed ischemic deficits (DIDs), a major source of disability following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), are usually associated with severe cerebral vasospasm and impaired autoregulation. Systemic erythropoietin (EPO) therapy has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties acting via EPO receptors on cerebrovascular endothelia and(More)
BACKGROUND Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a surgical intervention used following traumatic brain injury to prevent or alleviate raised intracranial pressure. However the clinical effectiveness of the intervention remains in doubt. The location of the craniectomy (unilateral or bifrontal) might be expected to change the brain deformation associated with(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationships between intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and outcome after traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data from 429 patients after head injury requiring intensive treatment on the Neuroscience Intensive Annex and the Neuro(More)
Decompressive craniectomy (DC)--a surgical procedure that involves removal of part of the skull to accommodate brain swelling--has been used for many years in the management of patients with brain oedema and/or intracranial hypertension, but its place in contemporary practice remains controversial. Results from a recent trial showed that early(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic subdural haematoma causes serious morbidity and mortality. It recurs after surgical evacuation in 5-30% of patients. Drains might reduce recurrence but are not used routinely. Our aim was to investigate the effect of drains on recurrence rates and clinical outcomes. METHODS We did a randomised controlled trial at one UK centre between(More)
Secondary insults can adversely influence outcome following severe traumatic brain injury. Monitoring of cerebral extracellular chemistry with microdialysis has the potential for early detection of metabolic derangements associated with such events. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the fundamental biochemical markers and(More)
Energy metabolism in the human brain is not fully understood. Classically, glucose is regarded as the major energy substrate. However, lactate (conventionally a product of anaerobic metabolism) has been proposed to act as an energy source, yet whether this occurs in man is not known. Here we show that the human brain can indeed utilize lactate as an energy(More)
Cognitive dysfunction is a devastating consequence of traumatic brain injury that affects the majority of those who survive with moderate-to-severe injury, and many patients with mild head injury. Disruption of key monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, such as the dopaminergic system, may play a key role in the widespread cognitive dysfunction seen after(More)
Bedside monitoring of cerebral metabolism in traumatic brain injury (TBI) with microdialysis is gaining wider clinical acceptance. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the fundamental physiological neuromonitoring modalities intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), brain tissue oxygen (P(bt)O(2)), and(More)
BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Ameliorating the neurocognitive and physical deficits that accompany traumatic brain injury would be of substantial benefit, but the mechanisms that underlie them are poorly characterized. This study aimed to use diffusion tensor imaging to relate clinical outcome to(More)