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Although the scope of the problem is large, most insomniacs do not seek medical treatment 6 and physician training in the recognition of sleep specific symptoms continues to be minimal. 7-9 The high incidence of insomnia complaints in conjunction with the minimal recognition of the problem by healthcare professionals has led to an underestimation of the(More)
We studied the efficacy of propranolol (Inderal) compared to alprazolam (Xanax) in 29 patients with a diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder or panic disorder with or without limited phobic avoidance in a 6-week double-blind controlled experiment. Alprazolam is effective in those syndromes, whereas to date only negative or ambiguous results had been(More)
To assess the use of actigraphy in evaluating insomnia, 36 patients with a serious complaint of insomnia slept 3 nights each in the laboratory, where the usual polysomnograms (PSGs) were obtained as well as actigraphic assessments of their sleep. Patients also wore actigraphs for 7 days at home, were extensively interviewed and filled out psychometric(More)
Decades of empirical observations have established the validity of actigraphy primarily in individuals without sleep disorders. Methodological problems encountered thus far coupled with the widespread use of actigraphy signal the need for concentrated efforts to establish a consensus regarding scoring procedures. Currently available scoring methods show(More)
The usefulness of the actigraph methodology has been demonstrated in normal individuals. However, the validity of actigraphy has been questioned in insomnia patients because of the considerable measurement error that has been reported between actigraphy (ACT) and polysomnography (PSG). Two independent investigations have reported errors of 48 and 49 min in(More)
After evaluating 165 insomniacs, 48 psychophysiologic insomniacs were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: electromyographic (EMG) feedback, combined EMG and theta feedback, sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) feedback, and no treatment (control). Sleep evaluations by home logs and in the laboratory were done before and after biofeedback and nine(More)
Twenty patients who had been insomniac since childhood were compared with 39 who had become insomniac during adult life. The childhood-onset insomniacs took longer to fall asleep, slept less, and showed excessive amounts of REM sleep without eye movements. Adult-onset insomniacs showed more restless sleep. No differences between childhood- and adult-onset(More)
To replicate a previous study, 16 psychophysiological insomniacs were randomly assigned to either Theta feedback or sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) feedback. Evaluations by home sleep logs and by 3 nights in the laboratory were done before biofeedback, immediately after biofeedback, and 9 months later. Results from this study replicate previous findings. Both(More)