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The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. It is currently believed that four to six crypt stem cells reside at the +4 position immediately above the Paneth cells in the small intestine; colon stem cells remain undefined. Lgr5 (leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5, also known as Gpr49) was(More)
The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We have recently demonstrated the presence of about six cycling Lgr5(+) stem cells at the bottoms of small-intestinal crypts. Here we describe the establishment of long-term culture conditions under which single crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, while(More)
The LKB1 gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that is mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers cancer syndrome. LKB1 is homologous to the Par-4 polarity genes in C. elegans and D. melanogaster. We have previously reported the identification and characterization of an LKB1-specific adaptor protein, STRAD, which activates LKB1 and translocates it from nucleus to(More)
Protein localization to the TGN was investigated by examining the subcellular distribution of chimeric proteins in which the cytoplasmic and/or transmembrane domains of the TGN protein, TGN38, were substituted for the analogous domains of the plasma membrane protein, Tac. Using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, the COOH-terminal cytoplasmic(More)
To investigate the mechanisms of membrane protein localization to the Golgi complex, we have examined the intracellular trafficking of epitope-tagged forms of the mammalian endopeptidase, furin, in stably transformed rat basophilic leukemia cells. Our studies show that furin is predominantly localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) at steady state, with(More)
The adult stem cell marker Lgr5 and its relative Lgr4 are often co-expressed in Wnt-driven proliferative compartments. We find that conditional deletion of both genes in the mouse gut impairs Wnt target gene expression and results in the rapid demise of intestinal crypts, thus phenocopying Wnt pathway inhibition. Mass spectrometry demonstrates that Lgr4 and(More)
M. tuberculosis and M. leprae are considered to be prototypical intracellular pathogens that have evolved strategies to enable growth in the intracellular phagosomes. In contrast, we show that lysosomes rapidly fuse with the virulent M. tuberculosis- and M. leprae-containing phagosomes of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages. After 2 days,(More)
Sorting of transmembrane proteins and their ligands at various compartments of the endocytic and secretory pathways is mediated by selective incorporation into clathrin-coated intermediates. Previous morphological and biochemical studies have shown that these clathrin-coated intermediates consist of spherical vesicles with a diameter of 60-100 nm. Herein,(More)
In human B lymphoblastoid cell lines, the majority of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II heterodimers are located on the cell surface and in endocytic compartments, while invariant chain (Ii)-associated class II molecules represent biosynthetic intermediates which are present mostly in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. To investigate(More)
Septins are conserved GTP-binding proteins involved in membrane compartmentalization and remodeling. In budding yeast, five mitotic septins localize at the bud neck, where the plasma membrane is enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P(2)). We previously established the subunit organization within purified yeast septin complexes and how(More)