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A numerical method is presented to compute electromagnetic fields inside a 2 mm high resolution, anatomically detailed model of a human head for high-frequency magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. The method uses the biconjugate gradient algorithm in combination with the fast Fourier transform to solve a matrix equation resulting from the(More)
This paper presents calculations of current density in a fine-resolution (2 mm) anatomically realistic voxel model of the human body for uniform magnetic fields incident from the front, side and top of the body for frequencies from 50 Hz to 10 MHz. The voxel phantom, NORMAN, has a height of 1.76 m and a mass of 73 kg. There are 8.3 million voxels in the(More)
A new mathematical model of the head has been constructed from a set of serial MRI slices from one subject. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed on this model with a 2 mm resolution for a generic mobile communication transceiver represented by a quarter-wavelength monopole on a(More)
This paper outlines the development of a 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI (aNAtOMIcal model), designed to be representative of the average adult female. The primary medical imaging data were derived from a high-resolution MRI scan of a 1.65 m tall, 23 year old female subject with a mass of 58 kg. The model was rescaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of(More)
This paper presents finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged SAR in an anatomically realistic voxel model of the human body. This model, NORMAN, consists of approximately 9 million voxels, of 2 mm dimension in the adult phantom, segmented into 37 tissue types. SAR values are presented for an adult phantom and for scaled(More)
Current density distributions in a fine resolution (2 mm) anatomically realistic voxel model of the human body have been calculated for uniform, low frequency vertically aligned electric fields for a body grounded and isolated from 50 Hz to 10 MHz. The voxel phantom NORMAN is used which has a height of 1.76 m and a mass of 73 kg. There are 8.3 million(More)
This paper describes the development of 2 mm resolution hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-weeks of gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the adult female model, NAOMI. This set of models was used to calculate induced current densities and electric(More)
This paper provides an intercomparison of the HPA male and female models, NORMAN and NAOMI with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) male and female models, TARO and HANAKO. The calculations of the whole-body SAR in these four phantoms were performed at the HPA, at NICT and at the Nagoya Institute of Technology (NIT).(More)
This paper presents finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of SAR in the University of Florida newborn female model. The newborn model is based upon a surface representation of the organs of the body, using non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces (NURBS). The surface model can then be converted into voxels at any resolution required. This(More)
The University of Florida (UF) Series B paediatric phantoms were developed for medical and radiation protection photon dosimetry. The series includes a 9 month male, a 4 year female, an 8 year female, an 11 year male and a 14 year male. In this paper they have been adapted to calculate the whole-body-averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in(More)