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Microsporidia are single-celled, obligate intracellular parasites that were recently reclassified from protozoa to fungi. Microsporidia are considered a cause of emerging and opportunistic infections in humans, and species infecting humans also infect a wide range of animals, raising the concern for zoonotic transmission. Persistent or self-limiting(More)
To investigate the viral and host factors that contribute to neurological disease, nine macaques were intravenously co-inoculated with SIV/DeltaB670, a primary isolate of SIV consisting of at least 21 different genotypes, and SIV/17E-Fr, a neurovirulent recombinant clone. CD4+ cell counts and antigenemia were measured throughout infection. The SIV env V1(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) leads to the death of 1.7 million people annually. The failure of the bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, synergy between AIDS and TB, and the emergence of drug resistance have worsened this situation. It is imperative to delineate the mechanisms employed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to successfully infect and persist in mammalian(More)
To examine the relationship between macrophage tropism and neurovirulence, macaques were inoculated with two recombinant hybrid viruses derived from the parent viruses SIVmac239, a lymphocyte-tropic, non-neurovirulent clone, and SIV/17E-Br, a macrophage-tropic, neurovirulent virus strain. The first recombinant, SIV/17E-Cl, contained the portion of the env(More)
BACKGROUND Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) may present as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, acute radiculoneuropathy or, rarely, as encephalomyelitis. We hypothesized that glia, upon exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, produce inflammatory mediators that promote the acute cellular infiltration of early LNB. This inflammatory context could(More)
Necropsy records from 204 SIV-infected rhesus monkeys that had been inoculated with various strains of SIV and had died of SIV-related disease were reviewed. The relationship of SIV encephalitis with other parameters was evaluated. Encephalitis was associated with the presence of syncytial cells in other tissues, with persistent or early recurrent(More)
Expression of tight junction proteins between brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is lost during development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis (HIVE). Although many studies have focused on the strains of virus that induce neurological sequelae or on the macrophages/microglia that are associated(More)
AIMS The pathogenesis of human/simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (HIVE/SIVE) remains incompletely understood, but is associated with alterations in the blood-brain barrier. At present, it is not possible to easily determine if an individual has HIVE/SIVE before post mortem examination. METHODS We have examined serum levels of the astroglial(More)
Therapies for microsporidiosis in humans are limited, and fumagillin, which appears to be the most broadly effective antimicrosporidial drug, is considered to be moderately toxic. The purpose of this study was to apply an in vitro drug screening assay for Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Vittaforma corneae and an in vivo athymic mouse model of V. corneae(More)
BACKGROUND Most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) research has focused on mice, but there are distinct differences in the functional neuroanatomy of the corticospinal pathway in primates vs. rodents. A non-human primate model may be more sensitive and more predictive for therapeutic efficacy. METHODS Rhesus macaques received recombinant adeno-associated(More)