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Expression of tight junction proteins between brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is lost during development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis (HIVE). Although many studies have focused on the strains of virus that induce neurological sequelae or on the macrophages/microglia that are associated(More)
AIMS The pathogenesis of human/simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (HIVE/SIVE) remains incompletely understood, but is associated with alterations in the blood-brain barrier. At present, it is not possible to easily determine if an individual has HIVE/SIVE before post mortem examination. METHODS We have examined serum levels of the astroglial(More)
BACKGROUND Most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) research has focused on mice, but there are distinct differences in the functional neuroanatomy of the corticospinal pathway in primates vs. rodents. A non-human primate model may be more sensitive and more predictive for therapeutic efficacy. METHODS Rhesus macaques received recombinant adeno-associated(More)
BACKGROUND Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) may present as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, acute radiculoneuropathy or, rarely, as encephalomyelitis. We hypothesized that glia, upon exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, produce inflammatory mediators that promote the acute cellular infiltration of early LNB. This inflammatory context could(More)
Cortical function is disrupted in neuroinflammatory disorders, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Astrocyte dysfunction includes retraction of foot processes from the blood-brain barrier and decreased removal of neurotransmitters from synaptic clefts. Mechanisms of astrocyte activation, including innate immune function and the fine(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global pandaemic, partially due to the failure of vaccination approaches. Novel anti-TB vaccines are therefore urgently required. Here we show that aerosol immunization of macaques with the Mtb mutant in SigH (MtbΔsigH) results in significant recruitment of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) as well as CD4(+) and(More)
Brucella melitensis, a bacterial pathogen and agent of epizootic abortion causes multiple pathologies in humans as well as a number of agriculturally important animal species. Clinical human brucellosis manifests as a non-specific, chronic debilitating disease characterized by undulant fever, arthropathies, cardiomyopathies and neurological sequelae. These(More)
Neurocognitive disorders such as dementia and cognitive/motor impairments are among the most significant complications associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, especially in aging populations, yet the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Activated macrophages and microglia in white matter along with the hallmark multinucleated giant(More)
BACKGROUND Risk of encephalitis from West Nile virus (WNV) infection increases dramatically with age. Understanding the basis of this susceptibility requires development of suitable animal models. Here, we investigated the immune response to WNV in old non-human primates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We investigated clinical, immunological and(More)
Flaviviruses, including Zika and dengue (DENV), pose a serious global threat to human health. Of the 50+ million humans infected with DENV annually, approximately 1–3 % progress to severe disease manifestations, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Several factors are suspected to mediate the course of infection and pathogenesis of(More)