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To investigate the viral and host factors that contribute to neurological disease, nine macaques were intravenously co-inoculated with SIV/DeltaB670, a primary isolate of SIV consisting of at least 21 different genotypes, and SIV/17E-Fr, a neurovirulent recombinant clone. CD4+ cell counts and antigenemia were measured throughout infection. The SIV env V1(More)
Microsporidia are single-celled, obligate intracellular parasites that were recently reclassified from protozoa to fungi. Microsporidia are considered a cause of emerging and opportunistic infections in humans, and species infecting humans also infect a wide range of animals, raising the concern for zoonotic transmission. Persistent or self-limiting(More)
A new human microsporidian was isolated from cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells incubated with conjunctival scrapings or corneal tissues from three AIDS patients with keratoconjunctivitis. The three isolates were morphologically similar to Encephalitozoon cuniculi. The spores averaged 1 x 1.5-2.0 microns, had six to eight polar filament coils,(More)
To examine the relationship between macrophage tropism and neurovirulence, macaques were inoculated with two recombinant hybrid viruses derived from the parent viruses SIVmac239, a lymphocyte-tropic, non-neurovirulent clone, and SIV/17E-Br, a macrophage-tropic, neurovirulent virus strain. The first recombinant, SIV/17E-Cl, contained the portion of the env(More)
Rhesus monkeys (RM) were inoculated intrabronchially with graded doses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains Erdman and H37Rv in an effort to produce a model of asymptomatic tuberculosis infection. Erdman strain produced active disease within 7-11 weeks regardless of dose. Low doses of H37Rv resulted in asymptomatic infections; high doses produced(More)
The expression of end-chain sugar residues and of oligosaccharidic sequences has been investigated in chick germ cells at critical stages during the migration, proliferation and sexual differentiation of these cells. Fluorescent lectins and indirect immunofluorescence studies using the NC-1/HNK-1 monoclonal antibody indicate a remarkable control of(More)
A lectin activity inhibitable by thiodigalactose, N-acetyllactosamine, lactulose, lactose and by an antibody raised against CLL I (chicken-lactose lectin I) has been investigated in the chick embryo developing kidney. At post-induction stages this activity was found in both mesonephros and metanephros. In immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy,(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) leads to the death of 1.7 million people annually. The failure of the bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, synergy between AIDS and TB, and the emergence of drug resistance have worsened this situation. It is imperative to delineate the mechanisms employed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to successfully infect and persist in mammalian(More)
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) may present as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, acute radiculoneuropathy or, rarely, as encephalomyelitis. We hypothesized that glia, upon exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, produce inflammatory mediators that promote the acute cellular infiltration of early LNB. This inflammatory context could potentiate(More)
Microsporidia cause opportunistic infections in AIDS patients and commonly infect laboratory animals, as well. Euthymic C57B1/6 mice experimentally infected with intraperitoneal injections of 1 x 10(6) Encephalitozoon cuniculi Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923, Encephalitozoon hellem Didier et al., 1991, or Nosema corneum Shadduck et al., 1990 displayed no(More)