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Expression of tight junction proteins between brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is lost during development of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis (HIVE). Although many studies have focused on the strains of virus that induce neurological sequelae or on the macrophages/microglia that are associated(More)
AIMS The pathogenesis of human/simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (HIVE/SIVE) remains incompletely understood, but is associated with alterations in the blood-brain barrier. At present, it is not possible to easily determine if an individual has HIVE/SIVE before post mortem examination. METHODS We have examined serum levels of the astroglial(More)
BACKGROUND Most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) research has focused on mice, but there are distinct differences in the functional neuroanatomy of the corticospinal pathway in primates vs. rodents. A non-human primate model may be more sensitive and more predictive for therapeutic efficacy. METHODS Rhesus macaques received recombinant adeno-associated(More)
BACKGROUND Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) may present as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, acute radiculoneuropathy or, rarely, as encephalomyelitis. We hypothesized that glia, upon exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, produce inflammatory mediators that promote the acute cellular infiltration of early LNB. This inflammatory context could(More)
GI inflammation is associated with an increase in nitric oxide production and expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Using a spontaneous model of chronic colonic inflammation in rhesus monkeys, which shares morphological and clinical features with ulcerative colitis, we assessed the therapeutic benefit of administration of iNOS(More)
BACKGROUND Sigma H (sigH) is a major Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) stress response factor. It is induced in response to heat, oxidative stress, cell wall damage, and hypoxia. Infection of macrophages with the Δ-sigH mutant generates more potent innate immune response than does infection with Mtb. The mutant is attenuated for pathology in mice. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND A decline in fertility is evident in human females past their middle thirties. This 'reproductive senescence', marked by a sharp decline in pregnancy rates, may be attributed to reductions in numbers of available oocytes and their quality. Because Old World primates exhibit ovarian morphology and physiological control and timing of menstrual(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global pandaemic, partially due to the failure of vaccination approaches. Novel anti-TB vaccines are therefore urgently required. Here we show that aerosol immunization of macaques with the Mtb mutant in SigH (MtbΔsigH) results in significant recruitment of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) as well as CD4(+) and(More)
Cortical function is disrupted in neuroinflammatory disorders, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Astrocyte dysfunction includes retraction of foot processes from the blood-brain barrier and decreased removal of neurotransmitters from synaptic clefts. Mechanisms of astrocyte activation, including innate immune function and the fine(More)
BACKGROUND The BCG vaccine is ineffective against adult tuberculosis. Hence, new antituberculosis vaccines are needed. Correlates of protection against tuberculosis are not known. We studied the effects of BCG vaccination on gene expression in tuberculosis granulomas using macaques. METHODS Macaques were BCG-vaccinated or sham-vaccinated and then(More)