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Mice representing precise genetic replicas of Huntington's disease (HD) were made using gene targeting to replace the short CAG repeat of the mouse Huntington's disease gene homolog (HDH:) with CAG repeats within the length range found to cause HD in humans. Mice with alleles of approximately 150 units in length exhibit late-onset behavioral and(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is initiated by an abnormally expanded polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin protein, conferring a novel property on the protein that leads to the loss of striatal neurons. Defects in mitochondrial function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Here, we have examined the hypothesis that the mutant huntingtin protein may(More)
The mutations responsible for several human neurodegenerative disorders are expansions of translated CAG repeats beyond a normal size range. To address the role of repeat context, we have introduced a 146-unit CAG repeat into the mouse hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (Hprt). Mutant mice express a form of the HPRT protein that contains a long(More)
While cilia are present on most cells in the mammalian body, their functional importance has only recently been discovered. Cilia formation requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), and mutations disrupting the IFT process result in loss of cilia and mid-gestation lethality with developmental defects that include polydactyly and abnormal neural tube(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited human neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor deficits, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric symptoms leading to inexorable decline and death. Since the identification of the huntingtin gene and the characteristic expanded CAG repeat/polyglutamine mutation, multiple murine genetic models and one(More)
Several murine genetic models of Huntington's disease (HD) have been developed. Murine genetic models are crucial for identifying mechanisms of neurodegeneration in HD and for preclinical evaluation of possible therapies for HD. Longitudinal analysis of mutant phenotypes is necessary to validate models and to identify appropriate periods for analysis of(More)
Nine neurodegenerative disorders are caused by CAG/polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansions. The molecular mechanisms responsible for disease-specific neurodegeneration remain elusive. We developed an embryonic stem (ES) cell-based model to probe the role of polyQ tract expansion in neuronal degeneration. ES cells containing expanded CAG repeats in the(More)
White matter abnormalities have been reported in premanifest Huntington's disease (HD) subjects before overt striatal neuronal loss, but whether the white matter changes represent a necessary step towards further pathology and the underlying mechanism of these changes remains unknown. Here, we characterized a novel knock-in mouse model that expresses mouse(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating, late-onset, inherited neurodegenerative disorder that manifests with personality changes, movement disorders, and cognitive decline. It is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the HTT gene that translates to a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). The formation of HTT fragments has been(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion that is unstable upon germ-line transmission and exhibits mosaicism in somatic tissues. We show that region-specific CAG repeat mosaicism profiles are conserved between several mouse models of HD and therefore develop in a predetermined manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these synchronous,(More)