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Mice representing precise genetic replicas of Huntington's disease (HD) were made using gene targeting to replace the short CAG repeat of the mouse Huntington's disease gene homolog (HDH:) with CAG repeats within the length range found to cause HD in humans. Mice with alleles of approximately 150 units in length exhibit late-onset behavioral and(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is initiated by an abnormally expanded polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin protein, conferring a novel property on the protein that leads to the loss of striatal neurons. Defects in mitochondrial function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Here, we have examined the hypothesis that the mutant huntingtin protein may(More)
The mutations responsible for several human neurodegenerative disorders are expansions of translated CAG repeats beyond a normal size range. To address the role of repeat context, we have introduced a 146-unit CAG repeat into the mouse hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (Hprt). Mutant mice express a form of the HPRT protein that contains a long(More)
Heteroduplexes formed between DNA strands derived from different homologous chromosomes are an intermediate in meiotic crossing over in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eucaryotes. A heteroduplex formed between wild-type and mutant genes will contain a base pair mismatch; failure to repair this mismatch will lead to postmeiotic segregation(More)
While cilia are present on most cells in the mammalian body, their functional importance has only recently been discovered. Cilia formation requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), and mutations disrupting the IFT process result in loss of cilia and mid-gestation lethality with developmental defects that include polydactyly and abnormal neural tube(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating, late-onset, inherited neurodegenerative disorder that manifests with personality changes, movement disorders, and cognitive decline. It is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the HTT gene that translates to a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). The formation of HTT fragments has been(More)
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as in other eukaryotes, some regions of the genome have a much higher rate of meiotic recombination than others. We show below that the binding of the RAP1 protein to a site upstream of the HIS4 gene is necessary for a high rate of meiotic (but not mitotic) recombination at this locus. A mutation in the RAP1 binding(More)
Huntington disease is caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat encoding an extended glutamine tract in a protein called huntingtin. Although the mutant protein is widely expressed, the earliest and most striking neuropathological changes are observed in the striatum. Here we show dramatic mutation length increases (gains of up to 1000 CAG repeats) in human(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitotoxicity is implicated as a proximate cause of neurodegeneration in Huntington Disease (HD). This hypothesis has not been tested rigorously in vivo. NMDAR-NR2B subunits are a major NR2 subunit expressed by striatal medium spiny neurons that degenerate in HD. To test the excitotoxic hypothesis, we crossed(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited human neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor deficits, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric symptoms leading to inexorable decline and death. Since the identification of the huntingtin gene and the characteristic expanded CAG repeat/polyglutamine mutation, multiple murine genetic models and one(More)