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Mice representing precise genetic replicas of Huntington's disease (HD) were made using gene targeting to replace the short CAG repeat of the mouse Huntington's disease gene homolog (HDH:) with CAG repeats within the length range found to cause HD in humans. Mice with alleles of approximately 150 units in length exhibit late-onset behavioral and(More)
The mutations responsible for several human neurodegenerative disorders are expansions of translated CAG repeats beyond a normal size range. To address the role of repeat context, we have introduced a 146-unit CAG repeat into the mouse hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (Hprt). Mutant mice express a form of the HPRT protein that contains a long(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is initiated by an abnormally expanded polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin protein, conferring a novel property on the protein that leads to the loss of striatal neurons. Defects in mitochondrial function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. Here, we have examined the hypothesis that the mutant huntingtin protein may(More)
Heteroduplexes formed between DNA strands derived from different homologous chromosomes are an intermediate in meiotic crossing over in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eucaryotes. A heteroduplex formed between wild-type and mutant genes will contain a base pair mismatch; failure to repair this mismatch will lead to postmeiotic segregation(More)
While cilia are present on most cells in the mammalian body, their functional importance has only recently been discovered. Cilia formation requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), and mutations disrupting the IFT process result in loss of cilia and mid-gestation lethality with developmental defects that include polydactyly and abnormal neural tube(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating, late-onset, inherited neurodegenerative disorder that manifests with personality changes, movement disorders, and cognitive decline. It is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the HTT gene that translates to a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). The formation of HTT fragments has been(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitotoxicity is implicated as a proximate cause of neurodegeneration in Huntington Disease (HD). This hypothesis has not been tested rigorously in vivo. NMDAR-NR2B subunits are a major NR2 subunit expressed by striatal medium spiny neurons that degenerate in HD. To test the excitotoxic hypothesis, we crossed(More)
The aggregation of mutant polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins has sparked interest in the role of protein quality-control pathways in Huntington's disease (HD) and related polyQ disorders. Employing a novel knock-in HD mouse model, we provide in vivo evidence of early, sustained alterations of autophagy in response to mutant huntingtin (mhtt). The HdhQ200(More)
Several murine genetic models of Huntington's disease (HD) have been developed. Murine genetic models are crucial for identifying mechanisms of neurodegeneration in HD and for preclinical evaluation of possible therapies for HD. Longitudinal analysis of mutant phenotypes is necessary to validate models and to identify appropriate periods for analysis of(More)
Heteroduplexes formed between genes on homologous chromosomes are intermediates in meiotic recombination. In the HIS4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most mutant alleles at the 5' end of the gene have a higher rate of meiotic recombination (gene conversion) than mutant alleles at the 3' end of the gene. Such gradients are usually interpreted as indicating(More)