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OBJECTIVE To explain and underscore the use of principal component analysis in clinical biomechanics as an expedient, unbiased means for reducing high-dimensional data sets to a small number of modes or structures, as well as for teasing apart structural (invariant) and variable components in such data sets. DESIGN The method is explained formally and(More)
In a recent study, De Haart et al. (Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85:886-895, 2004) investigated the recovery of balance in stroke patients using traditional analyses of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories to assess the effects of health status, rehabilitation, and task conditions like standing with eyes open or closed and standing while performing a cognitive(More)
Recently, two methods for quantifying a system's dynamic stability have been applied to human locomotion: local stability (quantified by finite time maximum Lyapunov exponents, lambda(S-stride) and lambda(L-stride)) and orbital stability (quantified as maximum Floquet multipliers, MaxFm). Thus far, however, it has remained unclear how many data points are(More)
Several efforts have been made to study gait stability using measures derived from nonlinear time-series analysis. The maximum finite time Lyapunov exponent (lambda(max)) quantifies how a system responds to an infinitesimally small perturbation. Recent studies suggested that slow walking leads to lower lambda(max) values, and thus is more stable than fast(More)
Humans are able to adjust the accuracy of their movements to the demands posed by the task at hand. The variability in task execution caused by the inherent noisiness of the neuromuscular system can be tuned to task demands by both feedforward (e.g., impedance modulation) and feedback mechanisms. In this experiment, we studied both mechanisms, using(More)
The neuromuscular system is inherently noisy and joint impedance may serve to filter this noise. In the present experiment, we investigated whether individuals modulate joint impedance to meet spatial accuracy demands. Twelve subjects were instructed to make rapid, time constrained, elbow extensions to three differently sized targets. Some trials (20 out of(More)
The effects of correct and transformed visual feedback on rhythmic unimanual visuo-motor tracking were examined, focusing on tracking performance (accuracy and stability) and visual search behavior. Twelve participants (reduced to 9 in the analyses) manually tracked an oscillating visual target signal in phase (by moving the hand in the same direction as(More)
The influence of attention on the dynamical structure of postural sway was examined in 30 healthy young adults by manipulating the focus of attention. In line with the proposed direct relation between the amount of attention invested in postural control and regularity of center-of-pressure (COP) time series, we hypothesized that: (1) increasing cognitive(More)
BACKGROUND Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that(More)
Falling poses a major threat to the steadily growing population of the elderly in modern-day society. A major challenge in the prevention of falls is the identification of individuals who are at risk of falling owing to an unstable gait. At present, several methods are available for estimating gait stability, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.(More)