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Humans are able to adjust the accuracy of their movements to the demands posed by the task at hand. The variability in task execution caused by the inherent noisiness of the neuromuscular system can be tuned to task demands by both feedforward (e.g., impedance modulation) and feedback mechanisms. In this experiment, we studied both mechanisms, using(More)
The neuromuscular system is inherently noisy and joint impedance may serve to filter this noise. In the present experiment, we investigated whether individuals modulate joint impedance to meet spatial accuracy demands. Twelve subjects were instructed to make rapid, time constrained, elbow extensions to three differently sized targets. Some trials (20 out of(More)
Three sources of interlimb interactions have been postulated to underlie the stability characteristics of bimanual coordination but have never been evaluated in conjunction: integrated timing of feedforward control signals, phase entrainment by contralateral afference, and timing corrections based on the perceived error of relative phase. In this study, the(More)
In the literature on motor control, three theoretical perspectives on the relation between discrete and cyclical movements may be discerned: (a) cyclical movements are concatenated discrete movements; (b) discrete movements are a limiting case of cyclical movements, and (c) discrete and cyclical movements are motor primitives that may be combined but are(More)
BACKGROUND Emotion theory holds that unpleasant events prime withdrawal actions, whereas pleasant events prime approach actions. Recent studies have suggested that passive viewing of emotion eliciting images results in postural adjustments, which become manifest as changes in body center of pressure (COP) trajectories. From those studies it appears that(More)
Impedance modulation has been suggested as a means to suppress the effects of internal 'noise' on movement kinematics. We investigated this hypothesis in a neuro-musculo-skeletal model. A prerequisite is that the muscle model produces realistic force variability. We found that standard Hill-type models do not predict realistic force variability in response(More)
Synchronization of neural activity is considered essential for information processing in the nervous system. Both local and inter-regional synchronization are omnipresent in different frequency regimes and relate to a variety of behavioral and cognitive functions. Over the years, many studies have sought to elucidate the question how alpha/mu, beta, and(More)
Schöner [Schöner G (1995) Ecol Psychol 7: 291-314] argued that the relative phase dynamics of rhythmic interlimb coordination may be attributed to the timing level in that the stability properties of the relative phase are largely independent of dynamical principles operating at the goal level, such as those related to the maintenance of a particular(More)
Based on recent brain-imaging data and congruent theoretical insights, a dynamical model is derived to account for the patterns of brain activity observed during stable performance of bimanual multifrequency patterns, as well as during behavioral instabilities in the form of phase transitions between such patterns. The model incorporates four dynamical(More)
Anchoring, that is, a local reduction in kinematic (i.e., spatio-temporal) variability, is commonly observed in cyclical movements, often at or around reversal points. Two kinds of underpinnings of anchoring have been identified-visual and musculoskeletal-yet their relative contributions and interrelations are largely unknown. We conducted an experiment to(More)